Egbo Reading Notes

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McGill University
Curriculum and Instruction
EDEC 248
Lerona Dana Lewis

EGBO READING NOTES: PAGES 5-12, 33-36, 53-55, 79-92, 95 116, 123 126, 150 151 , 147 150, 155 179 Race and Diversity identity can be fluid depending on environment/social positioning race contributes to understanding of diversity & identity; often shaped by social norms o conceptualization dependent on interpretations o basis of social discrimination dominant group produces/distributes access to social rewards race doesnt give rise to inequality, inequality gives rise to race Malik (pg. 6) stratification (act/process/arranging persons into classes or social strata) closely related to slavery scientifically based racial hierarchy exists in Western societies still racism: the uncritical acceptance of a negative social definition of a colonized or subordinate group typically identified by physical features o can be individual or institutional, structural, systemic o systemic = most virulent & denies subordinate/less powerful groups access to what society offers on basis on skin colour o cultural/ideological racism reinforces dominant group values by presenting them as normal institutional racism particularly harmful for academic process of children o racially biased attitudes of teachers/administrators o Eurocentric curricula & unfair/culturally biased assessment practices o construction of nondominant group children as others o harassment of minority students o streaming of minority students into non-academic programs o disciplinary policies that target minority students o unrepresentative curricula, administration & staffing o devaluation of nondominant group parents and community involvement Lisa Delpit has 5 key aspects of culture of power o issues of power are enacted in the classroom (curriculum, resources) o there are codes/rules for participating in power (linguistic codes, communicative competencies, self presentation/writing) o rules of culture of power = reflection of rules of culture of those who have power success in school & society depends on acquisition of cultural values or culture bases of dominant society o explicitly being told rules of power culture makes acquiring power easier o in power = less aware of existence; not in power = more aware of existence many have power in society by virtue of numbers/social position/race hegemony: leadership or dominance by one country or social group life chances: opportunities provided by social conditions within a given society & are functioned of 2 elements: options & ligatures o options provide choices & have implications for the future o ligatures are bonds & linkages that are developed through immersion in social context Hegemony and Diversity hegemony offers insight into study of power & ways domination reproduced as common sense thinking when operational, dominant groups able to eliminate resistance & opposition by representing imposed ideology as normal many oppressive structures & practices in schools inadvertently reinforced by those who are at the receiving end The Hidden Curriculum hidden curriculum: substantive amount of what students learn isnt openly stated school unintentionally teaches through content selection, routines & social relationships (school calendar, religious celebrations, concerts, festivals, hallway displays, library collections, etc.) children differ in class, race, etc. so understanding of messages in the hidden curriculum differ too Prejudice, Stereotypes and Xenophobia prejudice: set of rigid/unfavourable attitudes towards particular group(s) formed in disregard of facts o everyone has some form of prejudice o becomes harmful when used as basis for oppression, discrimination & stereotyping stereotyping: making misleading & inaccurate generalizations about others o never uniformly applied always as much intra-group as there is inter-group diversity prejudice & stereotyping devastating for teaching o teachers/students dont come to school as clean slates & school = nurturing ground o stereotypes about students race/heritage may affect how teachers teach certain subjects over time teacher & student will develop mutual resistance hard to reduce prejudice in schools since by the time students get to school, perceptions are already formed due to cognitive immaturity & need for parental approval / people reluctant to admit it xenophobia: persistent fear of foreigners and/or those who are different o becoming particularly prevalent in Western societies due to massive global population shifts The Colour-Blindness Syndrome people claim colour blindness as evidence of their aversion to racism, prejudice & discrimination even in culturally homogeneous contexts, equal love unnatural o impossible to love everyone equally / not notice racial differences o not realistic to claim every student can be treated equally since significant individual differences (learning styles, abilities, disabilities, etc.) Introduction: An Immigrant Nation not unusual for people to go to court to defend what they believe to be their constitutional right to educate their children according to own cultural beliefs contemporary Canadian ethno-cultural diversity = convergence of decline in natural population growth + liberalized immigration laws resulting in upsurge in immigrants from non-European countries source of immigration to Canada used to be predominately Europe (why? racist policies) The Politics of Canadian Diversity Canadian diversity dependent on political environment of given epoch since immigration policies rest on prevailing ideology Canada seen as immigration country but immigrants not always welcomed o why? sometimes seen as liabilities o seen as only happening to those of a visible minority, but has happened to whites as well (sick, illiterate, physically defective, enemies, etc.) o Ukrainians, Russians & Finns discouraged Canada racially homogeneous until end of WWII domestic needs & global events necessitated major ideological shift in immigration policy Pre-World War II Immigration Policies before conquest of New France by English = era of immigration exclusively focussed on colonization of Canada by the French 1760-1812 large numbers of British came to Canada (second group of colonizers) followed by post-1812 arrival of Germans, Black enslaved peoples & Sioux Indians (USA) 1880-WWI Eastern European & Asian immigrants came o industrialization so many went straight to work (cheap labour) o Jewish refugees & immigrants from Hungary, Russia, East India & Japan also came o continued until reductions & restrictions imposed between WWI & WWII Immigration Act of 1919 & Chinese Immigration Act of 1923 limited number of non-British immigrants entering Canada o denied entry to Blacks, Asians, Germans, illiterate, sick & unsuitable o continued until end of WWII Post-WWII Immigration Policies Canada began accepting large numbers of diverse & non-Caucasian immigrants realized immigration = necessity for economic growth & development 1946-1967 significant change in demographic due to liberalization of immigration laws 1967 Immigration Act removed racial identity as integral part of existing policy, national origin o replaced blatantly racist policies 1976 Immigration Act designated refugees as distinct category of immigrants & introduced point system o boosted intake of immigrants from non-traditional sources 1967-1970s, immigration from developing countries rose 40% o most came from Asia, Africa, Caribbean & Latin America visible minority population growing at faster rate as proportion of total population 2002 Immigration & Refugee Act affirms Canadas dependency on immigration for population growth & guarantees increases since 1981 Canada has had proportionally higher intake of immigrants compared to other immigrant taking countries (USA & Australia) immigrants currently constitute 1/5 of Canadas population more than 200 000 new immigrants settle in Canada each year o 60% dont speak English or French at home o currently 200 ethnic groups in Canada Overview of Canadian Education provinces have jurisdiction over education in Canada through publicly funded schools (BNA 1867) policies & funding done at provincial level, but implementation is local Canada doesnt have a national education system or national Minister of Education federal government has indirect influence each province has own policies & services, but there are commonalities binding them together o Council of Ministers of Education Canada (EMEC) has annual meeting to discuss educational issues issue: provide national education that also meets diverse cultural & linguistic needs Immigration and Schools immigration huge in
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