Chapter 2

8 Pages

Ed Psych & Couns (Psychology)
Course Code
EDPE 300
Camelia Birlean

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2: COGNITIVE AND LINGUISTIC DEVELOPMENT Basic Principles of Human Development development proceeds in a somewhat orderly and predictable pattern o human development characterized by developmental milestones (appearance of a new behaviour that is developmentally more advanced) o see universals (similar patterns we see in how children change over time regardless of specific environment in which they are raised) different children develop at different rates o generally timing known o knowing general capabilities helps design curriculum & instructional strategies for teaching periods of relatively rapid growth (spurts) may appear between periods of slower growth (plateaus) o development isnt at a constant rate development is continually affected by both nature (heredity) and nurture (environment) o all aspects of development (in)directly affected by genetics but not all at birth o maturation: unfolding of genetically controlled changes as a child develops o temperament: genetic tendency to respond in particular ways to physical/social environments o environment is a factor poverty o heredity & environment interact o sensitive period: age range during which a certain aspect of a childs development is especially susceptible to environmental conditions Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget, 1920s, studied childrens responses to problems introduced ideas/concepts to describe & explain change in logical thinking children are active and motivated learners o children curious & actively seek new information children construct knowledge from their experiences o knowledge not collection of isolated information; use all info to construct overall view of world o constructivism: theoretical perspective that proposes learners construct a body of knowledge from their experiences knowledge that may or may not be accurate representation of reality o what they learn/do = organized as schemes (organized group of similar actions or thoughts) o with experience & time, childrens schemes become modified & better integrated children learn through the two complementary processes of assimilation and accommodation o schemes change over time, but processes of development remain the same o assimilation: dealing with a new event in a way that is consistent with an existing scheme o accommodation: dealing with a new event by modifying an existing scheme/forming new one o assimilation & accommodation typically work together interaction with ones physical and social environments is essential for cognitive development o new experiences essential for learning & cognitive development the process of equilibrium promotes progression toward more complex thought levels o equilibrium: state of being able to explain new events by using existing schemes o disequilibrium: an inability to explain new events by using existing schemes o children able to understand & explain previously puzzling events through replacing, reorganizing & better integrating their schemes (accommodation) o equilibration: movement from equilibrium to disequilibrium & back to equilibrium; process promotes the development of more complex forms of thought & knowledge cognitive development can proceed only after certain genetically controlled neurological changes occur o cognitive development depends partly on brain maturation o hypothesized major physiological changes happen age 2, 6/7 & at puberty o psychologists disagree whether neurological advancements are responsible for developmental changes Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development each stage builds on accomplishments of former stages sensorimotor stage (birth until 2 years) o sensorimotor stage: schemes based on behaviours and perceptions (no mental schemes) o near the end, children develop object permanence (realization objects continue to exist even after they are removed from view) o begin to understand cause-effect relationships preoperational stage (2 years until 6/7 years) o preoperational stage: children think about objects beyond immediate view but dont reason in logical, adult-like ways o schemes relatively independent of immediate perceptions & behaviours o symbolic thinking (ability to represent and think about external objects & events in ones head) marks beginning of true thought o language skills explode at beginning o preoperational egocentrism: inability to view situations from another persons perspective o transductive reasoning: making mental leap from one specific thing to another o conservation: realization that if nothing is added or taken away, amount stays the same regardless of any alternations in shape or arrangement o early signs of being logical near end of stage concrete operations stage (6/7 years until 11/12 years) o concrete operations stage: adult-like logic appears but is limited to concrete reality o operations: organized & integrated systems of thought processes o children realize own thoughts/feelings arent necessarily shared by others o know can sometimes be wrong & begin to seek external validation o show conservation o multiple classification: recognition that objects may belong to several categories at once o deductive reasoning: drawing a logical inference about something that must be true, given other information o have trouble understanding & reasoning about abstract & contrary-to-fact ideas o difficulty handling problems that require them to consider many hypotheses/variables at once formal operations stage (11/12 years through adulthood) o formal operations stage: logical reasoning processes applied to abstract ideas & concrete objects o recognize what is logically valid is different from what is true in the real worldo can formulate & test multiple hypotheses, separate & control variables, proportionally reason o abstract problems easier to solve o scientific reasoning likely to improve o may exhibit idealism about social, political, ethical, religious issues o formal operational egocentrism: inability of individuals to separate their own abstract logic from the perspectives of others and from practical considerations o through experience adolescents begin to temper their optimism with some realism about whats possible in given time frame & with limited resources Current Perspectives on Piagets Theory capabilities of infants & preschool children undermined o object permanence happens as early as 2.5 months o preschoolers dont always show egocentrism o some preschoolers capable of class inclusion & conservation capabilities of elementary school children undermined o many show some ability to think abstractly & hypothetically o some can separate & control variables / understand & use simple proportions capabilities of adolescents overestimated o formal operational thinking processes emerge more gradually o may demonstrate formal operational thought in one content domain & concrete in another o students have difficulty thinking about abstract & hypothetical ideas into high school effects of prior knowledge and experience o ability to think logically about situation/topic depends on knowle
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