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EDPE 300 (25)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10

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Ed Psych & Couns (Psychology)
EDPE 300
Camelia Birlean

10: INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Planning for Instruction: Identifying the Goals of Instruction instructional objective: a statement describing a final goal or outcome of instruction identifying objectives before teaching lets you choose effective method of instruction & evaluation students benefit from knowing the objectives (more informed decisions about how to focus efforts, allocate study time, monitor comprehension) choosing appropriate objectives o school districts identify numerous objectives for students o teachers will add own objectives o cognitive domain: domain of learning tasks that includes knowledge of information as well as ways of thinking about and using that information o psychomotor domain: domain of learning tasks that includes simple & complex physical movements & actions o affective domain: domain of learning tasks that includes attitudes/values about things one learns o include objectives at varying degrees of complexity & sophistication taxonomies describe variety of possible educational objectives Blooms taxonomy: taxonomy in which 6 learning tasks, varying in degrees of complexity, are identified for the cognitive domain: remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating & creating ie/ Students will describe laws related to the reflection and refraction of light o describe the expected outcomes of instruction describe learning processes ie/ Students will give the English meanings of French words o identify both short term and long term goals short term objective: objective that can typically be accomplished within the course of a single lesson or unit minimum essentials students must accomplish before proceeding to next unit ie/ students must know how to add before they move to multiplication long term objective: objective that requires months or years of instruction and practice to be accomplished developmental include skills & abilities that continue to evolve & improve o incorporate opportunities for self-regulation and self-determination can be appropriate for students to identify own objectives encourages goal setting (self regulation) & self determination Planning for Instruction: Conducting a Task Analysis task analysis: a process of identifying the specific knowledge and/or behaviours necessary to master a particular subject area or skill can guide teachers to select appropriate methods & sequence to teach subject matter behavioural analysis identify specific behaviours require to perform task subject matter analysis break down subject matter into specific topics, concepts & principles information processing analysis specify cognitive processes involved in task (encoding, retrieving) conducting task analysis has at least two advantages: o when identify tasks specific components, have better sense of what things your students need to learn & order in which they can most effectively learn them o helps you choose appropriate instructional strategies Planning for Instruction: Developing a Lesson Plan lesson plan includes: o objective(s) of instruction o instructional strategies used & in what sequence o instructional materials & equipment required o assessment method(s) planned lesson places should take into account the students (developmental levels, prior knowledge, cultural backgrounds, etc.) guide, not a recipe (can & should change according to situation) long range plans change throughout the school year Expository Approaches expository instruction: an approach to instruction whereby information is presented in more or less the same form in which students are expected to learn it one way = teacher student can be more interactive lectures, textbooks, mastery learning, direct instruction, ICT, e-learning, online research Lectures and Textbooks behaviourist perspective students learn only when actively making responses & make very few observable responses when sit quietly in lecture cognitive perspective students often mentally active during passive activities; degree to which they learn depends on how they process information lectures & textbooks dont always facilitate learning +: allow teachers to present information quickly & efficiently -: dont allow us to assess students progress in learning Mastery Learning mastery learning: an approach to instruction whereby students learn one topic thoroughly before moving to a more difficult one based on 3 assumptions: o almost every student can learn a particular topic to mastery o some students need more time to master a topic than others o some students need more assistance than others components: o small, discrete units o logical sequence o demonstration of mastery at the completion of each unit o concrete, observable criterion for mastery of each unit o additional remedial activities for students needing extra help or practice to attain mastery students will usually proceed through various units at own speeds operant conditioning complex behaviours often more easily learned through shaping, simple response reinforced until it occurs frequently (mastered) cognitive psychologists information & skills need to be retrieved rapidly or used in complex problem solving situations must be practiced & learned thoroughly so automaticity is attained social cognitivists ability to perform task successfully & easily likely to enhahnce students sense of self efficacy advantages: o learn more & perform better on classroom assessm
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