EPSC 201 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Continental Crust, Biomineralization, Stibnite

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Minerals: solids formed by a geologic process that has crystalline structure and chemical composition. Crystalline structure: atoms are not distributed randomly and cannot move around easily. Have chemical formulas some contain only one element and some are compounds. Organic chemical which are the ones that contain carbon hydrogen bonds. Crystal: single continues piece of crystalline solid, typically bounded by flat surface called crystal faces, grows naturally as a mineral form. The name crystal comes from krysstallos meaning ice. The way that atoms are packed defines the crystal structure of the mineral. Halite for example consist of oppositely charged atoms and it shapes like a cube. Polymorphs: two different minerals that have the same composition but different crystal structures. (diamond and graphite) Mineral shape is a image of how the atoms are organized. Precipitation from a solution (form in a solution and then separate from it) Solid state diffusion (moving of atoms through a solid shape to form a new mineral)

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