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England's Revolutionary Era.docx

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McGill University
HIST 215
Sarah Waurechen

England's Revolutionary Era Conflicts in Stuart England • English civil war helped define the constitutional and political institutions of modern Britain • Kings sought to increase authority at parliament's expense + levy extralegal taxes without parl. consent • Conflicts between James I and parliament • Takes throne 1603 • Joins England and Scotland under one rule • Sketched out theory of divine right monarchy • Parliament is nothing but "cries, shouts, and confusion" • Stuck with queen Elizabeth's war debts • Inability to tax efficiently • Increasingly dependent on Duke of Buckingham • Sold titles, peerages and offices to raise money • Parliament meets only at king's pleasure • Queen Elizabeth had denied Parl. the right to discuss FP unless invited to do so by her ◦ Parl. pissed because James does this too ◦ Denounce James' attempt to arrange marriage for his son and daughter of Philip IV of Spain ▪ Seems too pro-Spanish and pro-cath. ▪ Wedding falls through ▪ His son marries another cath. Instead • James succeeded by son, Charles I Religious Divisions • Divided by religion in Europe • Established/Anglican Church faces challenge from Puritans • Puritans beliefs ◦ Predestination ◦ Individuals' personal understanding of the bible ◦ Oppose the role of bishops ◦ De-emphasize the sacraments ◦ Want simpler worship • Puritans found in all social groups ◦ 10% of population, but size and influence grew ◦ Increasingly hostile to Arminianism • Arminianism ◦ Reject predestination ◦ Individual salvation through free will ◦ Accepted rituals ◦ Emphasize authority and ceremonial role of bishops ◦ Royal authority over Church of England ◦ King Charles I became an Arminian • William Laud ◦ Bishop of London ◦ An Arminian ◦ Warned Charles of extreme Catholics and puritans ◦ Fear of popish plot to restore Catholicism Charles I and Parliament Clash • 1625 king forces loan on landowners without parl. consent • King convoked 3 parl. in 4 years ◦ Dissolved each when they refused to give him funds ◦ Parl. impeaches duke of Buckingham ▪ Duke assassinated later by crazy ◦ Charles asks again for funds ◦ Parl. forces upon him the Petition of Right 1628 ▪ Can no longer impose loans without parl. consent ▪ Can't arrest people freely ▪ Defines parl. rights as inalienable and condemned arbitrary arrest, martial law, and tax without consent ◦ Parl. dissolved in 1629 • Charles rules without Parl. for 11 years • Huge royal debt and high cost of ships and arms for war • High-handed royal policies lead to rebellion in Scotland ◦ Seized land of nobles ◦ Imposed Anglican book of common prayer on Scottish Presbyterian church ◦ Union of 1603 was weak ◦ Scottish leaders sign National Covenant attacking pope and prayer book ◦ Charles prepares to invade ◦ Scottish evict Anglican bishops and take over churches • Charles desperate for fundind to put down Scottish ◦ 1639 city of London agrees to help pay if Charles agrees to convene parl. and let them sit for a sufficient period of time ◦ 1640 parl. summoned ▪ Refuses to allocate money for Scottish war until king considers list of grievances ▪ King dissolves "Short Parliament" The English Civil War • Parl. role to protect fundamental English liberties established by Magna Carta 1215 • Parl. led by Puritans asserts role as balance to royal authority • People don't like king's attempt to extend his reach • Charles surrounds himself with catholic influence • Supporters of Parliament=supporters of "country" ◦ Mostly gentry • Supporters of King=supporters of "court" ◦ Mostly titled nobles • Parliament is mostly Puritan ◦ Led by John Pym • Moving toward Conflict • Charles calls new parl. ◦ crown's strengthening of the army with catholic Irish regiments ◦ English army defeated in Scotland ◦ War requires more funds ◦ Parl. proclaims it can only dissolve itself ◦ Cath. Irish peasants rise up and kill Protestant landlords • 1641 parl. passes Grand Remonstrance ◦ About royal misdeeds ◦ Calls for rel. and admin. reform • King attempts coup against parl. ◦ storms in with soldiers, tries to arrest Pym and co. ◦ They'd already left before he got there • Charles and family head north to more friendly area ◦ 1642 Charles mobilizes his forces at Nottingham • Taking Sides • Parl. soldiers=Roundheads • King's solders=cavaliers ◦ fight for God and king • Royal military advance on London fails twice • 1643 Charles rejects parl. proposal for a settlement • Village life disrupted by war • Oliver Cromwell and the New Model Army • 1643 parl. allies with scots ◦ 1644 they take northern England • Cromwe
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