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HIST 215 (9)


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McGill University
HIST 215
Sarah Waurechen

Napoleon Napoleon and the Revolution • returned to Corsica 1789 ◦ petitioned National Assembly to have Corsica become formally part of France • favoured the Revolution ◦ 1. wanted to see curtailment of the abuses of Old Regime ◦ 2. hoped Revolution might make his island more than just a conquered territory ◦ 3. might have opportunity for promotion • became a Jacobin ◦ commanded forces against supporters of Cath. church • helped put down royalist uprising 1795 • married Josephine de Beauharnais • now conducting military and FP virtually on his own • Fr. control of Austrian Neth., Venetia, and north + central Italy Cisalpine Republic • voyage to Egypt ◦ 35,000 soldiers + scientists ◦ defeats Egyptian forces at Battle of the Pyramids 1798 • Russia + Austria + Br. = Second Coalition • 1799 coup d'état overthrowing the Directory led by Napoleon and Abbé Sieyès Consolidation of Power • new government called the Consulat ◦ pol. stability ◦ Napoleon oversees new constitution ◦ makes peace with RCC • Napoleon consul for life 1802 ◦ emperor 1804 • Establishment of the Consulat • first consul, most powerful man in Fr. • Constitution 1799 ◦ universal suffrage (ish) ◦ leg. body could vote on laws but not debate them • Fr. districts each received appointed prefect ◦ more powerful than Intendants of Bourbon times • Napoleon suppresses the press, limiting number of newspapers to 13 • The Concordat • makes peace with RCC ◦ under state supervision ◦ Church should not have an institutional role in the affairs of state ◦ sought to detach Church from the quest for a restoration of the monarchy ◦ Pope Pius CII eager to end rel. turmoil ▪ 1801 Nap. signs Concordat with papacy ▪ Cath. religion of France ▪ pope appoints new bishops upon Nap. recommendation ▪ Church no longer has claim to old ecclesiastical lands ◦ Organic Articles ▪ Nap. did without consulting RCC ▪ regulated Fr. Church's status in France ▪ reduced pope's authority ▪ Church subject to same administrative organization and policing as any other organization ◦ Church gained freedom of religious practice at the expense of some of its independence • Napoleon's Leadership • ever-restless spirit • mastered subjects related to military and admin. • ppl feared his rages • made up his own mind, liked war • Wars of Conquest and Empire • France still at was with Second Coalition • Austria turns down overtures for peace ◦ Nap. defeats them in 1800 • Br. government signs Peace of Amiens 1802 ◦ Fr. keeps significant gains on the continent ◦ Br. returns all French colonies it captured • Nap. dictates territorial reorganization of HRE • 1802 France at peace for the first time in a decade • Nap. seeks to establish a hereditary empire in France • accuses Louis de Bourbon-Condé, a member of the Bourbon family, of conspi
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