HIST 215 Chapter Notes -Mikhail Gorbachev, Long Hair, Nuclear Weapon
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Transitions to Democracy and the collapse of communism
o In 1968, domestic political conflict erupted in Europe, France and the
o Social and cultural revolts exploded that year seemed to pit
young people against those entrenched in power.
o They blamed them for a world that was unresponsive to
demands for social justice and political change due to the
underprivileged and the oppressed.
o Alienation and Feminism were significant undercurrents during
o Mainly a movement of middle-class intellectuals and students.
o Ended with government repression and a conservative show of force
o Conservative or centrist parties dominated governments of Britain, the
German Federal Republic, and Italy (1970s+1980s) while Socialists
held power in France between 1981 and 1995.
Mikhail Gorbachev (1931—)
o Leader of the Soviet Union
o Undertook a dramatic series of reforms in the mid-1980s that
liberalized the economy and political life in the Communist state.
o He encouraged further demands for reform and stimulated nationalist
movements in the Soviet Union’s republics.
Because of Gorbachev’s reforms in the Soviet Union, one Communist
government after another fell.
o These revolutions ranged from the “velvet revolution” in
Czechoslovakia to the violent overthrow of Nicolae Ceausescu in
Overall, the fall of communism was achieved through a remarkably peaceful
process of change.
Transitions to democracy and the collapse of communism: in 1968, domestic political conflict erupted in europe, france and the. France: ended with government repression and a conservative show of force. Elsewhere: conservative or centrist parties dominated governments of britain, the. German federal republic, and italy (1970s+1980s) while socialists held power in france between 1981 and 1995. Because of gorbachev"s reforms in the soviet union, one communist government after another fell: these revolutions ranged from the velvet revolution in. Czechoslovakia to the violent overthrow of nicolae ceausescu in. Overall, the fall of communism was achieved through a remarkably peaceful process of change. In the 1960s u. s: long hair, sexual freedom, rock music, and marijuana seemed part of the idealistic youth rebellion against the state and capitalism. Western european states began to turn away from u. s. foreign policy domination: charles de gaulle feared domination of europe by britain and the.