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HIST 215 (9)
Chapter

Transitions to Democracy and the collapse of communism.docx

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Department
History
Course Code
HIST 215
Professor
Jason Szabo

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Transitions to Democracy and the collapse of communism o In 1968, domestic political conflict erupted in Europe, France and the United States. o Social and cultural revolts exploded that year seemed to pit young people against those entrenched in power. o They blamed them for a world that was unresponsive to demands for social justice and political change due to the underprivileged and the oppressed. o Alienation and Feminism were significant undercurrents during the protests o Mainly a movement of middle-class intellectuals and students. France: o Ended with government repression and a conservative show of force Elsewhere: o Conservative or centrist parties dominated governments of Britain, the German Federal Republic, and Italy (1970s+1980s) while Socialists held power in France between 1981 and 1995. Mikhail Gorbachev (1931—) o Leader of the Soviet Union o Undertook a dramatic series of reforms in the mid-1980s that liberalized the economy and political life in the Communist state. o He encouraged further demands for reform and stimulated nationalist movements in the Soviet Union’s republics. Because of Gorbachev’s reforms in the Soviet Union, one Communist government after another fell. o These revolutions ranged from the “
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