Textbook Notes (367,754)
Canada (161,370)
History (134)
HIST 218 (9)

HIST 218 - Chapter Nine: China and Korea Late Nineteenth Cent.doc

6 Pages
Unlock Document

HIST 218
Gavin Walker

Chapter Nine – China and Korea in Late Nineteenth Century I. China Self-Strengthening Movement: Phase One: 1861-1872 Phase Two: 1872-1884 Phase Three: 1884-1894 Sino-French War: 1884-1885 Sino-Janapese War: 1894-1895 Post-Taiping Renewal − Tongzhi period (1862-1874): sought to revive country torn by warfare with Confucian reformism − expenses and taxes cut in south; relief and public works projects initiated − as always, agriculture had priority − strengthening of scholarship − education system reform and eliminating bureaucratic corruption − however, reforms did not penetrate to lower levels of bureaucracy − furthermore, reform, insofar as it was driven by provincial governments, facilitated trend towards regionalism − led to removal of constraints on local wealth and power; restructuring of local society that proved dangerous for state and social order in the end Self-Strengthening—First Phase − aimed to fortify Qing through selective borrowing from West − focus on military modernization and international relations − expanded in middle phase to encompass transportation, communication, and mining − following defeat by France, broadened to include light industry − first phase: creation of gun factories and arsenals − shipbuilding machinery brought from France − new approach to international relations: office of General Management − also saw appeals to international law − establishment of schools of foreign languages − these were run at first by foreigners, who also ran military establishments − other foreigners also assisted in providing advice and equipment − beginning of process of treaty revisions, but these were unsuccessful Self-Strengthening—The Theory − many scholars moved away from philology to focus on policy studies − Feng Guifen: urged China to use barbarian techniques against the barbarians, the hallmark of the Self-Strengthening Movement − Chinese learning would remain heart of Chinese civilization, while Western learning would have subordinate role − 'Western means for Chinese ends' − conservatives concerned of Western contamination − in Japan, social change was sanctioned with an appeal to nationalism − in China, Confucianism was too closely associated with social structure to allow similar development Empress Dowager and the Government − dominant figure at court from mid seventies until her death − intelligent, educated daughter of minor Manchu official; entered palace as low-ranking concubine; bore Xianfeng emperor his only son − became co-regent for her son, Tongzhi emperor, whom she dominated − manipulated succession to place on throne four-year-old nephew − continued to make decisions, even when he ostensibly assumed imperial duties in 1889 − expert manipulator, but also oversaw extensive corruption − only goal was maintaining power; no aversion, nor commitment, to selective modernization − West was helping to support dynasty financially even as it was undermining its foundations − Sino-French war (1884-1885) fought over Vietnam, Taiwan and Pescadores; resulted in destruction of Fuzhou dockyars and fleet − afterwards, self-strengthening would include light industry Education − sending students abroad had mixed successes − however, students young enough to begin absorbing American ways, customs; some even married American girls and converting to Christianity − schools of alternative study in China taught both Confucian curriculum and new subjects − however, examination system meant Confucian classics were key to future success, meaning that that was what students focused on − suggestions of examination reform encountered opposition, for it affected Confucian core of civilization Economic Self-Strengthening − new industries (shipping, textile mills, telegraph, coal mines) also suffered from corruption and poor management − private capital was scarce; came mostly from Chinese businessmen − records of these companies were mixed − stagnation following initial spurt − failed to train Chinese technical personnel − plagued by incompetent managers, nepotism, and corruption Traditional Economic Sector − Chinese tea found increasing difficulty competing against India and Sri Lanka − silk remained important export, until overtaken by Japan in 1904 − world economy's effect on China was to telescope and accelerate change in the small peasant economy Missionary Efforts and Christian Influences − missionaries returned − some brought modern medicine and other secular knowledge to China − made notable effort in education − helped propagate knowledge of West as well as religion − first newspaper was a missionary publication − also contributed to scholarship − thus, missionaries served as cultural intermediaries − met with some success, but strength mainly concentrated in large treaty ports − however, there were still some strong hostile elements − mixed successes resulted from challenge of translation, particularly the most important elements of doctrine, such as the Trinity, sin, and of course, God − still disagreements about translation of God today − cultural differences compounded such difficulties − Chinese also associated Christ
More Less

Related notes for HIST 218

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.