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HIST 218 - Chapter Nine: China and Korea Late Nineteenth Cent.doc

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Department
History
Course
HIST 218
Professor
Gavin Walker
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter Nine – China and Korea in Late Nineteenth Century I. China Self-Strengthening Movement: Phase One: 1861-1872 Phase Two: 1872-1884 Phase Three: 1884-1894 Sino-French War: 1884-1885 Sino-Janapese War: 1894-1895 Post-Taiping Renewal − Tongzhi period (1862-1874): sought to revive country torn by warfare with Confucian reformism − expenses and taxes cut in south; relief and public works projects initiated − as always, agriculture had priority − strengthening of scholarship − education system reform and eliminating bureaucratic corruption − however, reforms did not penetrate to lower levels of bureaucracy − furthermore, reform, insofar as it was driven by provincial governments, facilitated trend towards regionalism − led to removal of constraints on local wealth and power; restructuring of local society that proved dangerous for state and social order in the end Self-Strengthening—First Phase − aimed to fortify Qing through selective borrowing from West − focus on military modernization and international relations − expanded in middle phase to encompass transportation, communication, and mining − following defeat by France, broadened to include light industry − first phase: creation of gun factories and arsenals − shipbuilding machinery brought from France − new approach to international relations: office of General Management − also saw appeals to international law − establishment of schools of foreign languages − these were run at first by foreigners, who also ran military establishments − other foreigners also assisted in providing advice and equipment − beginning of process of treaty revisions, but these were unsuccessful Self-Strengthening—The Theory − many scholars moved away from philology to focus on policy studies − Feng Guifen: urged China to use barbarian techniques against the barbarians, the hallmark of the Self-Strengthening Movement − Chinese learning would remain heart of Chinese civilization, while Western learning would have subordinate role − 'Western means for Chinese ends' − conservatives concerned of Western contamination − in Japan, social change was sanctioned with an appeal to nationalism − in China, Confucianism was too closely associated with social structure to allow similar development Empress Dowager and the Government − dominant figure at court from mid seventies until her death − intelligent, educated daughter of minor Manchu official; entered palace as low-ranking concubine; bore Xianfeng emperor his only son − became co-regent for her son, Tongzhi emperor, whom she dominated − manipulated succession to place on throne four-year-old nephew − continued to make decisions, even when he ostensibly assumed imperial duties in 1889 − expert manipulator, but also oversaw extensive corruption − only goal was maintaining power; no aversion, nor commitment, to selective modernization − West was helping to support dynasty financially even as it was undermining its foundations − Sino-French war (1884-1885) fought over Vietnam, Taiwan and Pescadores; resulted in destruction of Fuzhou dockyars and fleet − afterwards, self-strengthening would include light industry Education − sending students abroad had mixed successes − however, students young enough to begin absorbing American ways, customs; some even married American girls and converting to Christianity − schools of alternative study in China taught both Confucian curriculum and new subjects − however, examination system meant Confucian classics were key to future success, meaning that that was what students focused on − suggestions of examination reform encountered opposition, for it affected Confucian core of civilization Economic Self-Strengthening − new industries (shipping, textile mills, telegraph, coal mines) also suffered from corruption and poor management − private capital was scarce; came mostly from Chinese businessmen − records of these companies were mixed − stagnation following initial spurt − failed to train Chinese technical personnel − plagued by incompetent managers, nepotism, and corruption Traditional Economic Sector − Chinese tea found increasing difficulty competing against India and Sri Lanka − silk remained important export, until overtaken by Japan in 1904 − world economy's effect on China was to telescope and accelerate change in the small peasant economy Missionary Efforts and Christian Influences − missionaries returned − some brought modern medicine and other secular knowledge to China − made notable effort in education − helped propagate knowledge of West as well as religion − first newspaper was a missionary publication − also contributed to scholarship − thus, missionaries served as cultural intermediaries − met with some success, but strength mainly concentrated in large treaty ports − however, there were still some strong hostile elements − mixed successes resulted from challenge of translation, particularly the most important elements of doctrine, such as the Trinity, sin, and of course, God − still disagreements about translation of God today − cultural differences compounded such difficulties − Chinese also associated Christ
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