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International Development
INTD 200
Warren Allmand

CP Reading 25: The Development Impacts of HIV/AIDS (Lora Sabin & Candace Miller) HIV and AIDS  Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – a disease that attacks the human immune system o Once infected, a person’s immune system deteriorates over a number of years until it is incapable of resisting infections o This person now has Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) – Clinically defined by a low CD4 cell count or by and AIDS-defining illness  PLWHA – people living with HIV/AIDS  HIV is transmitted through the exchange of bodily fluids – semen, vaginal secretions, blood, breast milk o Worldwide, most people contract HIV through sexual contact  Range of symptoms and illnesses – weight loss, declining energy, infections like pneumonia, active tuberculosis, meningitis, and AIDS-related stigmas  Since late 1980’s antiretroviral therapy (ART) used to boost immune system and suppress HIV virus o ART has become available in most developing countries since mid-1990s o Global response to HIV/AIDS epidemic helped increase access to ART worldwide o PLWHA can expect to live ten years+ after beginning ART o Throughout developing world, human resource and drug shortages limit access to treatment o Patients on ART usually experience dramatic improvements in their health within 1-6 months Global Trends in HIV and AIDS  Number of PLWHA rose in every region of the world over the last decade o Sub-Saharan Africa continues to bear the greatest burden of AIDS – nearly 2/3rds of infected persons wordwide (63%) o Southern Africa is the global epicenter of HIV/AIDS – 1 in 3 HIV positive persons lives in Southern Africa  Worldwide, and evolving trend is the rising proportion of infections in women HIV/AIDS and Development  Particularly devastating impacts on development – attacks society’s most productive members o Virus mainly transmitted through sexual contact – typically infecting and killing people in the prime of their lives  Can change population structures – negatively impact the supply and productivity of labor and reduce household income and business earnings o Shifts resources from productive uses to care and treatment for PLWHA o Children are orphaned, lowering society’s future development potential  Different impacts occur separately or simultaneously at varying levels  These scenarios are multiplied throughout a community, country or region, therefore the macro-level impacts may be devastating The Timing and Visibility of Development Impacts  Developmental impacts may be felt as immediate and severe shocks or as complex, gradual and long-term changes  Impacts emerge as the number of cumulative infections rise and AIDS deaths occur – may continue long after as well Problems with Information and Measurement  Over 20 years into the AIDS epidemic, still cannot adequately identify and measure the countless ways in which it impacts society  Government, NGOs, and universities still lack the human, financial, and technical resources needed to collect, analyze and share relevant data on the impacts  Obtaining information from affected populations difficult because of stigmas, denial, and geographical barriers  Individuals, households, and firms can virtually disappear, leaving little evidence of impacts – especially hard-hit communities Impacts at Different Levels: What We Do Know 1. Households affected by AIDS  Death of main breadwinner plunges families into poverty  Limited infrastructure of healthcare services in developing
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