Principles of assessment, prescription and exercise
10/1/2012 6:12:00 AM
Understanding the role and responsibilities of health and fitness professionals
Understand the components of fitness testing
Evaluate test validity, reliability and objectivity and protection equations
Understanding the basic principles of exercise and design
Understand how behavior change models relate to program adherence
Appreciate the need for certification and licensure
* the way you approach and athlete and a geriatrics patient is very different
Responsibilities of Kinesiologist
Education: benefits of exercise, do’s, don’ts ***most important
Screening: pretest evaluations and stratification
Selection: administration, interpretation
Design: individualized program
Lead: exercise sessions
Critiques: technique, performance
Motivate: continued adherence, improvement 10/1/2012 6:12:00 AM
What is Physical Fitness ?
Ability to perform occupational recreational and daily activities without undue fatigue
Body weight or composition
Ability of circulatory and pulmonary systems to work together to deliver O2 and nutrients to working
muscles and those muscles ability to use them!
Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max)
Can be measured or estimated
Commonly requires a GXT (max or submax)
* can test people on a whole punch of different modalities
Ability of muscles and skeleton to do work
1. Muscular strength (max force or tension)
2. Muscular endurance (ability to maintain submax force over extended periods of time)
3. Bone strength (max force or tension produced by bone) -*very important, acts as the lever
Relates to bone mineral content and bone density
Body Weight and Body Composition
Body weight = mass of individual
Body composition = body weight in terms of amount of muscle, bone, fat
Absolute amount: weight of that specific component (ex. 15 pounds of fat)
Relative amount: weight of that specific component in relation to total body mass percentage (ex.
10% body fat)
Ability of joint(s) to move through entire range of motion (ROM)
Limited by; Bone structure of joint
Size and strength or related musculature, ligaments
Associated connective tissue
* musculature can improve or hinder flexibility
Ability to keep body’s center of gravity (COG) within base support when
Maintaining static position
Performing voluntary movements, or
Reacting to external disturbances
Functional balance – ability to perform daily movement tasks requiring balance
Picking up and object of the floor
Turning to look at something behind you
*All theses components overlap a lot Physical Fitness Test Sequence and Environment 10/1/2012 6:12:00 AM
Test sequence matters
1. Resting BP and HR
2. Body composition *want to do this before they sweat b.c it may change results (loosing water)
3. Cardiorespiratory endurance *Acts like a warm up, muscular fitness may tire you to much if you
were to do it first.
4. Muscular fitness * Big muscles than smalls ones
*Make sure you are extremely organized, tell people what will be happening
Stabilize room temperature and humidity
Provide some privacy
Keep all equipment calibrated and in good condition
Prepare the area in advance!
Asses accuracy of measurement
Comparison against reference or criterion method
Direct (reference) versus indirect (field) measures
Prediction equations, conversion formulas
Validity coefficient (y,y' is the correlation between
criterion score (y) and
predictor score (y').
-ry,y’t least .80 is good.
Standard error estimate (SEE): a measure of prediction error
the smaller the better
- Line of best fit: shows relationship between criterion and predictor values
- The tighter the cluster of data points around the line of best fit, the smaller the SEE and higher the
correlation (r y,y’
*always ask yourself… is this the right test
Test of Reliability
Assesses repeatability of measurement
Looking for consistency and stability of scores
Comparison of multiple measures
Reliability affects validity
Poor reliability is poor validity (*If can’t measure same thing more than once or twice in a
row its not a good test) Good reliability is not always good validity (*the test is reliable but its not measuring what
I want it to be measuring)
Reliability coefficient (X1,X2: correlation between
score 1 (X1) and
score 2 (X2)
rX1,X2at least .90 is good.
Comparison of scores by multiple technicians
Influences by training, practice, standard procedures
Objectivity coefficient (r1,2): correlation between
tester #1 (1) and
tester #2 (2).
-r1,2at least .90 is good.
Prediction Equation Evaluation
What reference method was used?
How large was the original sample? *Larger sample sizes gives you a larger range of values that
proves the relationship
What is the ratio of sample size to variable?
What is the size of R MC and SEE?
To whom does the prediction equation apply?
How were measures made?
Was the prediction equation cross-validated?
How do well to cross-validation statistics replicate original statistics?
Are the limits of agreement acceptable?
Administering and Interpreting Tests
- Pretest instruction: tell your clients how to prepare! (*if they have to much coffee it may influence
Hydration for preceding 24 hours
No eating, smocking, alcohol, or caffeine 3 hours prior
No strenuous PA on day of rest
Lots of rest the night before -Test administration: Get the best answers for your clients
1. Prepare setup in advance
2. Follow standardized procedures
3. The more practice you have, the more confident you will be, and the more at ease the
client will be
-Test administration: Explain the results to your client (*speak in a language they understand)
Use established normative values
Use language the client understands (K.I.S.S.)
Explain using positive point of view
Maintain confidentiality 10/1/2012 6:12:00 AM
Basic Principles of Program Design