Chapter 3.docx

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Kinesiology&Physical Education
EDKP 350
Celena Scheede- Bergdahl

Chapter 3 Principles of assessment, prescription and exercise programme adherence 10/1/2012 6:12:00 AM Chapter Objectives  Understanding the role and responsibilities of health and fitness professionals  Understand the components of fitness testing  Evaluate test validity, reliability and objectivity and protection equations  Understanding the basic principles of exercise and design  Understand how behavior change models relate to program adherence  Appreciate the need for certification and licensure * the way you approach and athlete and a geriatrics patient is very different Responsibilities of Kinesiologist  Education: benefits of exercise, do’s, don’ts ***most important  Screening: pretest evaluations and stratification  Selection: administration, interpretation  Design: individualized program  Lead: exercise sessions  Critiques: technique, performance  Motivate: continued adherence, improvement 10/1/2012 6:12:00 AM What is Physical Fitness ? Ability to perform occupational recreational and daily activities without undue fatigue Components:  Cardiorespiratory endurance  Musculoskeletal fitness  Body weight or composition  Flexibility  Balance Cardiorespiratory Endurance Aerobic capacity Ability of circulatory and pulmonary systems to work together to deliver O2 and nutrients to working muscles and those muscles ability to use them! Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) Can be measured or estimated Commonly requires a GXT (max or submax) * can test people on a whole punch of different modalities Musculoskeletal Fitness Ability of muscles and skeleton to do work Three aspects: 1. Muscular strength (max force or tension) 2. Muscular endurance (ability to maintain submax force over extended periods of time) 3. Bone strength (max force or tension produced by bone) -*very important, acts as the lever Relates to bone mineral content and bone density Body Weight and Body Composition Body weight = mass of individual Body composition = body weight in terms of amount of muscle, bone, fat Absolute amount: weight of that specific component (ex. 15 pounds of fat) Relative amount: weight of that specific component in relation to total body mass percentage (ex. 10% body fat) Flexibility Ability of joint(s) to move through entire range of motion (ROM) Limited by;  Bone structure of joint  Size and strength or related musculature, ligaments  Associated connective tissue * musculature can improve or hinder flexibility Balance Ability to keep body’s center of gravity (COG) within base support when  Maintaining static position  Performing voluntary movements, or  Reacting to external disturbances Functional balance – ability to perform daily movement tasks requiring balance  Picking up and object of the floor  Dressing  Turning to look at something behind you *All theses components overlap a lot Physical Fitness Test Sequence and Environment 10/1/2012 6:12:00 AM Test sequence matters 1. Resting BP and HR 2. Body composition  *want to do this before they sweat b.c it may change results (loosing water) 3. Cardiorespiratory endurance  *Acts like a warm up, muscular fitness may tire you to much if you were to do it first. 4. Muscular fitness  * Big muscles than smalls ones 5. Flexibility *Make sure you are extremely organized, tell people what will be happening  Stabilize room temperature and humidity  Provide some privacy  Keep all equipment calibrated and in good condition  Prepare the area in advance! Test Validity  Asses accuracy of measurement  Comparison against reference or criterion method  Direct (reference) versus indirect (field) measures  Prediction equations, conversion formulas  Validity coefficient (y,y' is the correlation between  criterion score (y) and  predictor score (y'). -ry,y’t least .80 is good. Standard error estimate (SEE): a measure of prediction error the smaller the better - Line of best fit: shows relationship between criterion and predictor values - The tighter the cluster of data points around the line of best fit, the smaller the SEE and higher the correlation (r y,y’ *always ask yourself… is this the right test Test of Reliability Assesses repeatability of measurement  Looking for consistency and stability of scores Comparison of multiple measures Reliability affects validity  Poor reliability is poor validity (*If can’t measure same thing more than once or twice in a row its not a good test)  Good reliability is not always good validity (*the test is reliable but its not measuring what I want it to be measuring) Reliability coefficient (X1,X2: correlation between  score 1 (X1) and  score 2 (X2) rX1,X2at least .90 is good. Test Objectivity  Interested reliability  Comparison of scores by multiple technicians  Influences by training, practice, standard procedures  Objectivity coefficient (r1,2): correlation between  tester #1 (1) and  tester #2 (2). -r1,2at least .90 is good. Prediction Equation Evaluation What reference method was used? How large was the original sample? *Larger sample sizes gives you a larger range of values that proves the relationship What is the ratio of sample size to variable? What is the size of R MC and SEE? To whom does the prediction equation apply? How were measures made? Was the prediction equation cross-validated? How do well to cross-validation statistics replicate original statistics? Are the limits of agreement acceptable? Administering and Interpreting Tests - Pretest instruction: tell your clients how to prepare! (*if they have to much coffee it may influence their results)  Appropriate clothing  Hydration for preceding 24 hours  No eating, smocking, alcohol, or caffeine 3 hours prior  No strenuous PA on day of rest  Lots of rest the night before -Test administration: Get the best answers for your clients 1. Prepare setup in advance 2. Follow standardized procedures 3. The more practice you have, the more confident you will be, and the more at ease the client will be -Test administration: Explain the results to your client (*speak in a language they understand) Use established normative values Use language the client understands (K.I.S.S.) Explain using positive point of view Maintain confidentiality 10/1/2012 6:12:00 AM Basic Principles of Program Design Sp
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