MGCR 222 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Workplace Deviance, Absenteeism, Human Capital

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18 Feb 2013
MGCR222 Chapter 2 Notes: Attitudes and Job Satisfaction
Components of Attitudes
Cognitive components description of or belief in the way things are; sets the stage for the more critical part of
an attitude
Affective component the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude can lead to behavioural outcomes
Behavioural component describes an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
Cognitive dissonance any incompatibility an individual might perceive between two or more attitudes or between
behaviour and attitudes. Any from of inconsistency is uncomfortable and that individuals will therefore attempt to reduce
Desire to reduce dissonance depends on moderation factors, including importance of the elements creating it and
the degree of influence we believe we have over them
Moderating variables importance of the attitude, its correspondence to behaviour, its accessibility, the presence
of social pressures, and whether a person has direct experience with the attitude
Job Attitudes
Job satisfaction describes a positive feeling about a job, resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics
Job involvement measures the degree to which people identify psychologically with their job and consider their
perceived performance level important to self-worth psychological empowerment beliefs in the degree to
which they influence their work environment, their competence, the meaningfulness of their job, and their
perceived autonomy (high levels of both are positively related to organizational citizenship and job performance)
Organizational commitment employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to
remain a member. Relationships between commitment and performance is strongest for new employees
o Affective commitment emotional attachment to the organization and a belief in its values
o Continuance commitment perceived economic value of remaining with an organization (related to a
lower intention to quit but an increased tendency to be absent and lower job performance; not a real
o Normative commitment an obligation to remain with the organization for moral or ethical reasons
Perceived organizational support the degree to which employees believe the organization values their
contribution and cares about their well-being. People perceive their organization as supportive when rewards are
deemed fair, employees have a voice in decisions, and when supervisors are supportive
Employee engagement an individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for, the work they
Job Satisfaction
Measuring single global rating or summation of job facets (identifying key elements and rating on a
standardized scale)
People are satisfied with their jobs overall, with the work itself, and with supervisors and co-workers. Tend to be
less satisfied with pay and promotion possibilities
Core self-evaluations believe in their inner worth and basic competence
Interdependence, feedback, social support, and interaction with co-workers outside the workplace are strongly
o Exit directs behaviour toward leaving the organization, including looking for a new position and
o Voice includes actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions (suggesting improvements,
union activity)
o Loyalty passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve (speaking up for organization)
o Neglect passively allows conditions to worsen and includes chronic absenteeism or lateness
Vs. job performance happy workers are more likely to be productive
Vs. ocb people who are more satisfied with their jobs are more likely to engage in organizational citizenship
Vs. customer satisfaction satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty
Vs. absenteeism dissatisfied employees have high absence rates, but when there are few they have the same
(low) rate of absence as satisfied employees
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