MGCR 222 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Emotional Contagion, Emotional Labor, Illusory Correlation

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18 Feb 2013
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MGCR222 Chapter 3 Notes: Emotions and Moods
Affect covers a broad range of feelings people experience, including both emotions and moods
Emotions intense feelings directed at someone or something
Likely to be caused by a specific event, and more fleeting than moods
Tend to be more clearly revealed by facial expressions
Specific and numerous in nature
Action oriented
Moods less intense feelings than emotions and often lack a contextual stimulus
Cause is often general and unclear
Last longer than emotions
More general (two main dimensions: positive and negative affect composed of multiple specific emotions)
Generally not indicated by distinct expressions
Cognitive in nature
Positive affect mood dimension consisting of positive emotions such as excitement, self-assurance and cheerfulness at
the high end and boredom, sluggishness, and tiredness at the low end
Negative affect mood dimension consisting of nervousness, stress, and anxiety at the high end and relaxation,
tranquility, and poise at the low end
Positivity offset at zero input (when nothing is going on), most individuals experience a mildly positive mood
Sources of Emotions and Moods
Personality most people have built-in tendencies to experience certain moods and emotions more frequently
than others; affect intensity how strongly you experience your emotions
Day/time people tend to be in worst moods early in the weeks, and best moods late in the week. Levels of
positive affect tend to peak at around the halfway point between waking and sleeping. Negative affect has little
Weather little effect on mood; illusory correlation people tend to think nice weather improves their mood.
Occurs when people associate two events that in reality have no connection
Stress takes a toll on our moods
Social activities social activities increase positive mood and have little effect on negative mood. Activities that
are physical are more strongly associated with increases in positive mood than formal or sedentary events
Sleep poor or reduced sleep impairs decision making and makes it difficult to control emotions
Exercise enhances people’s positive mood
Age negative emotions seem to occur less as people get older. Emotional experience improves with age; as we
get older, we experience fewer negative emotions
Gender women are more emotionally expressive than men, experience emotions more intensely, “hold onto”
emotions longer than men, and display more frequent expression of both positive and negative emotions, except
Emotional labour employee’s expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work
Emotional dissonance when employees have to project one emotion while feeling another. Can eventually lead to
emotional exhaustion and burnout
Felt emotions individual’s actual emotions
Displayed emotions those that the organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given job
Surface acting hiding inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions in response to display rules (displayed
More stressful to employees because it entails feigning their true emotions
Deep acting trying to modify our true inner feelings based on display rules (felt emotions)
Emotional intelligence a person’s ability to 1) be self-aware (to recognize her own emotions when she experiences
them), 2) detect emotions in others, and 3) manage emotional cues and information
People who know their own emotions and are good at reading emotion cues are most likely to be effective
Case for EI
Intuitive appeal intuition suggest people who can detect emotions in others, control their own emotions, and
handle social interactions well have a powerful leg up in the business world
Predicts criteria that matter evidence suggest a high level of EI means a person will perform well on the job
Biologically based EI is neurologically based in away that’s unrelated to standard measures of intelligence; also
genetically influenced
Case against EI
Too vague
Can’t be measured – measures of EI are diverse, and has not been subject to rigorous research
Validity once you control EI for intelligence and personality, it has nothing unique to offer. Appears to be
highly correlated with measures of personality
People in positive moods are more likely to use heuristics to help make good decisions quickly
Enhance problem-solving skills
People in good moods tend to be more creative produce more ideas and options
More flexible and open in their thinking
Performance feedback influenced mood, which then influenced motivation
Leaders who focus on inspirational goals also generate greater optimism and enthusiasm in employees, leading to
more positive social interactions with co-workers and customers
Emotional contagion the “catching” of emotions from others