MGCR 222 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Distributive Justice, Performance Appraisal, Organizational Justice

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MGCR222 Chapter 6 Notes: Motivation Concepts
Motivation the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort
toward attaining a goal
Intensity describes how hard a person tries. However, high intensity is unlikely to lead to favourable job-
performance outcomes unless the effort is channeled in a direction that benefits the organization.
Therefore, we consider the quality of effort as well as its intensity. Effort directed toward, and consistent
with, the organization’s goals is the kind of effort we should be seeking. Finally, motivation has a
persistence dimension. This measures how long a person can maintain effort.
Early Theories of Motivation
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Physiological includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs
Safety security and protection from physical and emotional harm
Social affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship
Esteem internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement, and external factors
such as status, recognition, and attention
Self-actualization drive to become what we are capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving
our potential, and self-fulfillment
Although no need is ever fully gratified, a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates. Thus as each of
these needs becomes substantially satisfied, the next one becomes dominant.
Lower-order needs physiological and safety needs (satisfied externally)
Higher-order needs social, esteem, self-actualization needs (within the person)
Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X managers believe employees inherently dislike work and must therefore be directed or
even coerced into performing it
Theory Y managers assume employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play, and
therefore the average person can learn to accept, or even seek, responsibility
Theory Y assumes higher-order needs dominate individuals. Proposed such ideas as participative
decision making, responsible and challenging jobs, and good group relations as approaches to
maximize an employee’s job motivation
Two-Factor Theory
Intrinsic factors such as advancement, recognition, responsibility, and achievement seem related
to job satisfaction
Dissatisfied respondents tended to cite extrinsic factors, such as supervision, pay, company
policies, and working conditions
Hygiene factors quality of supervision, pay, company policies, physical working conditions
Emphasizing factors associated with the work itself or with outcomes directly derived from it,
such as promotional opportunities, personal growth opportunities, recognition, responsibility, and
achievement to motivate people
Criticisms
The procedure Herzberg used is limited by its methodology. When things are going well, people
tend to take credit themselves. Contrarily, they blame failure on the extrinsic environment
The reliability of Herzberg’s methodology is questionable. Raters have to make interpretations, so
they may contaminate the findings by interpreting one response in one manner while treating a
similar response differently
No overall measure of satisfaction was utilized.
Herzberg assumed a relationship between satisfaction and productivity, but the research
methodology he used looked only at satisfaction and not at productivity
McClelland’s Theory of Needs
Need for achievement (nAch) the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to
strive to succeed
Need for power (nPow) the need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have
behaved otherwise
Need for affiliation (nAff) the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
When jobs have a high degree of personal responsibility and feedback and an intermediate degree
of risk, high achievers are strongly motivated
A high need to achieve does not necessarily make someone a good manager, especially in large
organizations
Needs for affiliation and power tend to be closely related to managerial success
Contemporary Theories of Motivation
Self-determination theory proposes that people prefer to feel they have control over their
actions, so anything that makes a previously enjoyed task feel more like an obligation than a freely
chosen activity will undermine motivation. Also proposes that in addition to being driven by a
need for autonomy, people seek ways to achieve competence and positive connections to others
Cognitive evaluation theory hypothesizes that extrinsic rewards will reduce intrinsic interest in
a task. When people are paid for work, it feels less like something they want to do and more like
something they have to do
Self-concordance considers how strongly peoples’ reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with
their interests and core values. If individuals pursue goals because of an intrinsic interest, they are
more likely to attain their goals and are happy even if they do not. In contrast, people who pursue
goals for extrinsic reasons are less likely to attain their goals and less happy even when they do
Goal-Setting Theory
Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be expended.
Specific goals increase performance; difficult goals result in higher performance than do easy
goals, and that feedback leads to higher performance than does nonfeedback
Challenging goals get our attention and thus tend to help us focus. Difficult goals energize us
because we have to work harder to attain them. When goals are difficult, people persist in trying
to attain them. Difficult goals lead us to discover strategies that help us perform the job or task
more effectively.
Assume an individual is committed to the goal and is determined not to lower or abandon it. In
terms of behaviour, the individual believes he or she can achieve the goal, and wants to achieve it.
Management by objectives emphasizes participatively set goals that are tangible, verifiable, and
measurable
Goal specificity, participation in decision making, an explicit time period, and performance
feedback
Self-efficacy theory refers to an individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. The
higher your self-efficacy, the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed.
Enactive mastery gaining relevant experience with the task or job
Vicarious modeling becoming more confidence because you see someone else doing the task
Verbal persuasion becoming more confidence because someone convinces you that you have the
skills necessary to be successful
Arousal leads to an energized state, which drives a person to complete the task
Pygmalion effect a form of self-fulfilling prophecy in which believing something can make it true.
Increases self-efficacy when we communicate to an individual’s teacher or supervisor that the
person is of high ability
Galatea affect occurs when high performance expectations are communicated directly to an
employee
Equity Theory employees perceive what they get from a job situation in relationship to what they put
into it and then compare their outcome-input ratio with that of relevant others
Self-inside: an employee’s experiences in a different position inside the employee’s current
organization
Self-outside: an employee’s experiences in a situation or position outside the employee’s current
organization
Other-inside: another individual or group of individuals inside the employee’s organization
Other-outside: another individual or group of individuals outside the employee’s organization
Gender, length of tenure, level in the organization, and amount of education moderating
variables
When ratios are equal: state of equity exists there is no tension as the situation is considered fair
When ratios are unequal: tension exists due to unfairness (underrewarded/overrewarded)
Tension motivates people to act to bring their situation into equity
1. change their inputs (exert less effort if underpaid, or more if overpaid)
2. change their outcomes (individuals paid on a piece-rate basis can increase their pay by producing
a higher quantity of units of lower quality)
3. distort perceptions of self
4. distort perceptions of others
5. choose a different referent
6. leave the field (quit the job)
Distributive justice the employee’s perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among
individuals (most strongly related to organizational commitment and satisfaction with outcomes such as
pay)
Organizational justice a larger perception of what is fair in the workplace
Procedural justice the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards
(relates most strongly to job satisfaction, employee trust, withdrawal from the organization, job
performance, and citizenship behaviours)
process control opportunity to present your point of view about desired outcomes to decision
makers
explanations clear reasons management gives for the outcome (consistent, unbiased, accurate
information, open to appeals)
Interactional justice an individual’s perception of the degree to which she is treated with dignity,
concern, and respect