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2-Perception, Personality ad Emotions.pdf

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McGill University
Management Core
MGCR 222
Jim Fraser

Perception Thursday, January 31, 2013 1:10 AM What is Perception? - Process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions to give meaning - Why is this important? ○ Because behavior is based on our perception of reality as opposed to reality itself Why we study it: - To better understand how people make attributions about events ○ These guide our behavior (even if they're not true) - We don't see reality we interpret it Factors influencing perception: (PTS) (e.g.: two people meeting) - The perceiver: ○ Attitudes, motives,interests, experience.. - The target (attributes of what is being perceived) ○ Novelty, Sounds, size, background - The situation ○ Time, environment, etc. (social / work settings) Perceptual errors: - Attribution Theory: ○ When observing behaviour we try to determine if it is internally or externally caused ○ Distinctiveness:  Does the individual act the same way in other situations? ○ Consensus:  Validation from others ○ Consistency ○ Fundamental Attribution Error  Tendency to underestimate external factors and overestimate internal factors when making judgments about other's behaviours ○ Self-serving Bias  Convince our selves that Successes from internal  And failures from external - Selective perception: ○ Selectively interpret based on their (interests, background, experience, attitudes) - Halo Effect: (generalizing) ○ Drawing a general impression based on one characteristic - Contrast Effects ○ Person's evaluation is affected by comparison with others - Projection: ○ Attributing one's own characteristics to other people - Stereotyping ○ Judging someone based on the group they belong to - Prejudice: ○ Unfounded dislike of a person based on stereotyping Why do perceptions / judgment matter? - Self-Fulfilling prophecy ○ A person will behave how others (and themselves) perceive them 2-Perception^J Personality ad Emotions Page 1 Personality Thursday, January 31, 2013 1:32 AM - The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts / interacts with others - Measuring Personality ○ Scores on personality tests help managers forecast people's success Personality Determinants - Heredity - Environmental Factors - Situational Conditions Personality Traits - Enduring characteristics describe person's behaviour ○ The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ○ The Big 5 Model Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (situational-based personality test) ○ Classifications:  Extroverted(E)or Introverted(I)  Sensing (S)or Intuitive(I)
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