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Chapter 4

MGCR222 Chapter 4 Notes - Personality and Values.docx

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Management Core
MGCR 222
Patricia Hewlin

MGCR222 Chapter 4 Notes: Personality and Values Personality – sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others; useful in hiring decisions and helps managers forecast who is best for a job  Most common way to measure personality is through self-report surveys  Observer-ratings surveys provide an independent assessment of personality – often better predictors Heredity – factors determined at conception  People’s dependability tends to increase over time  Everyone tends to change by the same amount, so their rank order stays roughly the same  Personality is more changeable in adolescents and more stable among adults Personality traits – characteristics exhibited in a large number of situations; the more consistent the characteristic over time, and the more frequently it occurs in diverse situations, the more important that trait is in describing the individual Myers-Briggs Type Indicator  Extraverted vs. introverted – extraverts are outgoing, sociable and assertive. Introverts are quiet and shy  Sensing vs. intuitive – sensing types are practical and prefer routine and order. They focus on details. Intuitives rely on unconscious processes and look at the big picture  Thinking vs. feeling – thinking types use reason and logic to handle problems. Feeling types rely on their personal values and emotions  Judging vs. perceiving – judging types want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured. Perceiving types are flexible and spontaneous  One problem that it forces a person into either one type or another  Can be a valuable tool for increasing self-awareness and providing career guidance; results tend to be unrelated to job performance, so managers should not use it as a selection tool Big Five Personality Model  Extraversion – captures our comfort level with relationships. Extraverts tend to be gregarious, assertive, and sociable. Introverts tend to be reserved, timid, and quiet. Defined by better interpersonal skills, greater social dominance, more emotionally expressive. Leads to higher performance, enhanced leadership, and higher job & life satisfaction  Agreeableness – refers to an individual’s propensity to defer to others. Highly agreeable people are cooperative, warm, and trusting. People who score low are cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic. Defined by better liked, more compliant and conforming. Leads to higher performance, lower levels of deviant behaviour  Conscientiousness – measure of reliability. A highly conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable, and persistent. Those who score low are easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable. Defined by greater effort & persistence, more drive and discipline, better organized & planning. Leads to higher performance, enhanced leadership, greater longevity  Emotional stability – taps a person’s ability to withstand stress. People with positive emotional stability tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure. Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure. Defined by less negative thinking and fewer negative emotions, less hyper-vigilant. Leads to higher job & life satisfaction, lower stress levels  Openness to experience – addresses range of interests and fascination with novelty. Extremely open people are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive. Those at the other end are conventional and find comfort in the familiar. Defined by increased learning, more creative, more flexible & autonomous. Leads to training performance, enhanced leadership, more adaptable to change  Highly conscientious people develop more job knowledge, exert greater effort, and have better performance  Emotional stability is related to job satisfaction  Extroverts tend to be happier in their jobs and have good social skills  Open people are more creative and can be good leaders  Agreeable people are good in social settings Core Self-Evaluations  Positive evaluations – like themselves and see themselves as effective and capable. Perform better than others because they set more ambitious goals.  Negative evaluations – tend to dislike themselves, question their capabilities, and view themselves as powerless in their environment Machiavellianism – pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes ends can justify means  High Machs manipulate more, win more, are persuaded less, and persuade others more than do low Machs  High Machs flourish when they interact face to face with others rather than indirectly, when the situation has a minimal number of rules and regulations, allowing for latitude for improvisation, and when emotional involvement with details irrelevant to winning distracts low Machs  In jobs that require bargaining skills or that offer substantial rewards for winning, high Machs will be productive; if ends can’t justify means, there are absolute standards of behaviour, or situational factors are not present, we cannot predict high Mach performance Narcissism – describes a person who has a grandiose sense of self-importance, requires excessive admiration, has a sense of entitlement, and is arrogant  Tend to “talk down” to those who threaten them, selfish, exploitive, and believe others exist for their benefit  Less effective at jobs than others, particularly when it comes to helping others Self-monitoring – individual’s ability to adjust his or her behaviour to external, situational factors  High in self-monitoring show considerable adaptability in adjusting their behaviour; highly sensitive to extern
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