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MGCR 222 (39)
Chapter 5

MGCR222 Chapter 5 Notes - Perception and Individual Decision Making.docx

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Management Core
MGCR 222
Patricia Hewlin

MGCR222 Chapter 5 Notes: Perception and Individual Decision Making Perception – a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. However, what we perceive can be substantially different from objective reality  Perceiver – when you look at a target and attempt to interpret what you see, your interpretation is heavily influenced by your personal characteristics. Characteristics that affect perception include your attitudes, personality, motives, interests, past experiences, etc.  Target – characteristics of the target we observe can affect what we perceive. The relationship of a target to its background also influences perception, as does our tendency to group close things and similar things together.  Situation – context is important. The time at which we see an object or event can influence our attention Attribution Theory – explains the ways in which we judge people differently, depending on the meaning we attribute to a given behaviour. It suggests that when we observe an individual’s behaviour, we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused. The determination depends on distinctiveness, consensus, and consistency  Internally caused – those we believe to be under the personal control of the individual  Externally caused – what we imagine the situation forced the individual to do  Distinctiveness – refers to whether an individual displays different behaviours in different situations. If behaviour is unusual, we are likely to give it an external attribution. If it isn’t, we will judge it as external  Consensus – if everyone who faces a similar situation responds in the same way. If consensus is high, external attribution; if low, internal cause  Consistency – the more consistent the behaviour, the more we are inclined to attribute it to internal causes Errors or Biases  Fundamental attribution error – when we make judgments about the behaviour of other people, we tend to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors  Self-serving bias – individuals and organizations tend to attribute their own successes to internal factors such as ability or effort, while putting the blame for failure on external factors such as bad luck or unproductive co- workers Shortcuts to Judging Others  Selective perception – allows us to “speed-read” others, but not without the risk of drawing an inaccurate picture. Because we see what we want to see, we can draw unwarranted conclusions from an ambiguous situation  Halo effect – when we draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic, such as intelligence, sociability, or appearance  Contrast effect – we don’t evaluate a person in isolation. Our reaction to a person is influenced by other persons we have recently encountered  Stereotyping – when we judge someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs Decisions – choices from among two or more alternatives Problem – a discrepancy exists between the current state of affairs and some desired state, requiring us to consider alternative courses of action Perception linkage – all elements of problem identification and the decision making process are influenced by perception; problems must be recognized and data must be selected and evaluated Rational decision-making model - the “perfect world” model; assumes complete information, all options known, and maximum payoff  Define the problem  Identify the decision criteria  Allocate weights to the criteria  Develop the alternatives  Evaluate the alternatives  Select the best alternative Bounded rationality – the “real world” model; seeks satisfactory and sufficient solutions from limited data and alternatives  Satisfice: seek solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient  We construct simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity  Perceptual and decision-making biases and heuristics are not necessarily bad. They allow us to process information more quickly and efficiently. The key is to be self-aware enough to see when a bias or shortcut may be counterproductive Intuition – an unconscious process created from distilled experience  Occurs outside unconscious thought, relies on holistic associations or links between disparate pieces of information, fast, and affectively charged (engaging
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