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Chapter 6

MGCR222 Chapter 6 Notes - Motivation Concepts.docx

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Management Core
MGCR 222
Patricia Hewlin

MGCR222 Chapter 6 Notes: Motivation Concepts Motivation – the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal Intensity describes how hard a person tries. However, high intensity is unlikely to lead to favourable job- performance outcomes unless the effort is channeled in a direction that benefits the organization. Therefore, we consider the quality of effort as well as its intensity. Effort directed toward, and consistent with, the organization’s goals is the kind of effort we should be seeking. Finally, motivation has a persistence dimension. This measures how long a person can maintain effort. Early Theories of Motivation Maslow’s hierarchy of needs  Physiological – includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs  Safety – security and protection from physical and emotional harm  Social – affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship  Esteem – internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement, and external factors such as status, recognition, and attention  Self-actualization – drive to become what we are capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving our potential, and self-fulfillment Although no need is ever fully gratified, a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates. Thus as each of these needs becomes substantially satisfied, the next one becomes dominant. Lower-order needs – physiological and safety needs (satisfied externally) Higher-order needs – social, esteem, self-actualization needs (within the person) Theory X and Theory Y  Theory X – managers believe employees inherently dislike work and must therefore be directed or even coerced into performing it  Theory Y – managers assume employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play, and therefore the average person can learn to accept, or even seek, responsibility  Theory Y assumes higher-order needs dominate individuals. Proposed such ideas as participative decision making, responsible and challenging jobs, and good group relations as approaches to maximize an employee’s job motivation Two-Factor Theory  Intrinsic factors such as advancement, recognition, responsibility, and achievement seem related to job satisfaction  Dissatisfied respondents tended to cite extrinsic factors, such as supervision, pay, company policies, and working conditions  Hygiene factors – quality of supervision, pay, company policies, physical working conditions  Emphasizing factors associated with the work itself or with outcomes directly derived from it, such as promotional opportunities, personal growth opportunities, recognition, responsibility, and achievement to motivate people Criticisms  The procedure Herzberg used is limited by its methodology. When things are going well, people tend to take credit themselves. Contrarily, they blame failure on the extrinsic environment  The reliability of Herzberg’s methodology is questionable. Raters have to make interpretations, so they may contaminate the findings by interpreting one response in one manner while treating a similar response differently  No overall measure of satisfaction was utilized.  Herzberg assumed a relationship between satisfaction and productivity, but the research methodology he used looked only at satisfaction and not at productivity McClelland’s Theory of Needs  Need for achievement (nAch) – the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed  Need for power (nPow) – the need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have behaved otherwise  Need for affiliation (nAff) – the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships  When jobs have a high degree of personal responsibility and feedback and an intermediate degree of risk, high achievers are strongly motivated  A high need to achieve does not necessarily make someone a good manager, especially in large organizations  Needs for affiliation and power tend to be closely related to managerial success Contemporary Theories of Motivation  Self-determination theory – proposes that people prefer to feel they have control over their actions, so anything that makes a previously enjoyed task feel more like an obligation than a freely chosen activity will undermine motivation. Also proposes that in addition to being driven by a need for autonomy, people seek ways to achieve competence and positive connections to others  Cognitive evaluation theory – hypothesizes that extrinsic rewards will reduce intrinsic interest in a task. When people are paid for work, it feels less like something they want to do and more like something they have to do  Self-concordance – considers how strongly peoples’ reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values. If individuals pursue goals because of an intrinsic interest, they are more likely to attain their goals and are happy even if they do not. In contrast, people who pu
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