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MGCR 222 (39)

3- Perception, Attribution, Diversity

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Management Core
MGCR 222
Yongheng Yao

Perception: The process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment. Perception helps sort out and organize the complex and varied input received by our senses of sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing. Components of Perception: - A perceiver - A target that is being perceived - Some situational context in which the perception is occurring These all influence the perceiver’s impression or interpretation of the target The Perceiver: experience, needs, and emotions can affect his or her perceptions of a target. One of the most important characteristics of the perceiver that influences his or her impressions of a target is experience. Past experiences lead the perceiver to develop expectations, and these expectations affect current perceptions. Perceptual defense: The tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions. (see what we want to see, hear what we want to hear) Our perceptual system works to ensure we do not see or hear things that are threatening. The Target: Perception involves interpretation and the addition of meaning to the target, and ambiguous targets are especially susceptible to interpretation and addition. Perceivers have a need to resolve such ambiguities. The Situation: Every instance of perception occurs in some situational context, and this context can affect what one perceives. The most important effect that the situation can have is to add information about the target. Social Identity Theory: A theory that states that people form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories. As a result, our sense of self is composed of a personal identity and a social identity. Our personal identity is based on our unique personal characteristics, such as our interests, abilities, and traits. Our social identity is based on our perception that we belong to various social groups, such as our gender, nationality, religion, occupation…. Bruner’s model demonstrates three important characteristics of the perceptual process. 1. Perception is selective. Perceivers do not use all the available cues, and those they do use are thus given special emphasis. 2. Perceptual constancy: refers to the tendency for the target to be perceived in the same way over time or across situations. 3. Perceptual consistency: refers to the tendency to select, ignore, and distort cues in such a manner that they fit together to form a homogeneous picture of the target. Primacy Effects: FIRST IMPRESSIONS The tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues or first impressions. Primacy often has a lasting impact. Primacy is a form of selectivity, and its lasting effects illustrate the operation of constancy. Recency Effect: LAST IMPRESSIONS The tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions. (situation in which people give undue weight to the cues they encountered most recently – last impressions count the most) Central Traits: See only what you want to see Each of us has a “theory” about which personality characteristics go together. They are called implicit personality theories. Projection: The tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others. (people often assume that others are like themselves) Stereotyping: The tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category and ignore variations among them. Attribution: The process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain people’s behavior.  Dispositional attributions (internal): Explanations for behavior based on an actor’s personality or intellect. Behavior thus reflects the “true person”  Situational attributions (external): Explanations for behavior based on an actor’s external situation or environment. Person might have had little control over the behavior. Different Attribution cues (has to be low [situational] or high [dispositional]): Consistency cues: Attribution cues that reflect how consistently a person engages in a behavior over time. Consensus Cues: Attribution cues that reflect how a person’s behavior compares with that of others. Distinctiveness Cues: Attribution cues that reflect the extent
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