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MGCR 222 (39)

5 -Theories of Work Motivation

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Management Core
MGCR 222
Yongheng Yao

3/10/2013 9:15:00 AM Theories of Work Motivation Motivation: The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal.  Effort: First aspect of motivation – the strength of the person’s work-related behavior, or the amount of effort the person exhibits on the job.  Persistence – persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks.  Direction –  Goals – Intrinsic motivation : Motivation that comes from the direct relationship between the worker and the task; it is usually self-applied. (feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge). Doing this because of the job itself – doing it because you enjoy it.  Autonomous motivation: when people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors Extrinsic motivation: Motivation that comes form the work environment external to the task; it is usually applied by others. (pay, benefits). Doing this because I can get something out of it (pay, promotion). “work or get fired”  Controlled motivation: When people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward. Self-determination theory: A theory of motivation that considers whether people’s motivation autonomous or controlled. (used to explain what motivates people and whether motivation is autonomous or controlled) Performance – The extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization General Cognitive Ability: A person’s basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources. Emotional Intelligence – The ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s feeling and emotions. (ability to perceive and express emotion…) Four branch model of EI: 1. Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others – ability to accurately identify emotions in people’s faces and in non-verbal behavior 2. Using emotions to facilitate thinking – ability to use emotions in functional ways, such as making decisions and etc 3. Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by emotions 4. Managing emotions so as to attain specific goal Three theories of motivation: Need theories (motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance) Needs – are physiological and psychological wants or desires that can be satisfied by acquiring certain incentives or achieving particular goals. Concerned with WHAT motivates people. Needs -> Behavior -> Incentives and Goals Practical Implications of Need Theories: - Appreciate individual differences - Appreciate intrinsic motivation - Our needs change depending on our life cycle Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – A five-level hierarchical need theory of motivation that specifies that the lowest-level unsatisfied need has the greatest motivating potential 1. Physiological needs – needs that must be satisfied for the person to survive 2. Safety needs – needs for security, stability, freedom from anxiety, and a structured and ordered environment (ex: safe working conditions, job security..) 3. Belongingness needs – needs for social interaction, affection, love, companionship and friendship 4. Esteem needs – needs for feelings of adequacy, competence, independence, strength and confidence 5. Self-actualization needs – involve the desire to develop one’s true potentials as an individual to the fullest extent and to express one’s skills, talents and emotions in a manner that is most personally fulfilling. Alderfer’s ERG Theory – A three level hierarchical need theory of motivation (existence, relatedness, growth) that allows for movement up and down the hierarchy. 1. Existence need – needs that are satisfied by some material substance or condition 2. Relatedness need – needs that are satisfied by open communication and the exchange of thoughts and feelings with other organizational members. 3. Growth needs – needs that are fulfilled by strong personal involvement in the work setting. Two major motivational premises: 1. The more lower-level needs are gratified, the more higher-level n
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