Organizational Behavior Chapter 1 2/17/2013 1:05:00 PM
Organizational Behavior: systematic study that investigates the impact that individual, groups and
structure have on behavior within organizationapply to improve the organization
Goals of OB:
o Predict: conditions under which people will be productive, make good decisions,
If I can predict, then I can
o Explain: why events and behavior occur so people will be more productive,
satisfied, less prone to resign
Then I can take the action
o Control behavior: affect behavior: reward, supervision, design job, etc.
Why study OB:
To understand with behavior problems
Promote positive productivity work behaviors
Understand organizations (system of interdependent part)
With their role and functions in managerial process
Familiar with team work
OB is for everyone: apply to all situations in which you interact with others and relevant anywhere
that people come together and share experience, work on goals, meet to solve problem.
At personal level: OB help to learn about oneself and others
Organization: consciously coordinated social unit, composed of groups of people, that function on a
relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals
o Official goals: general statement of what org wishes to accomplish.
o Operative goal: specific statements to provide guidelines for org
activitiesachieve OFFICIAL GOALS
o Employees goals: motivated, reliable, flexiblegroup effort: individual must be
coordinated to achieve goals (through group effort, teamwork.)
The important of interpersonal skills:
org that invest in the development of employees’ interpersonal skills are more likely to
keep and attract high performers
social relationship among co-workers and supervisors were strongly related to overall job
satisfactionassociated with low stress and low intention to quit
creating a pleasant workplace appear to make economic sense because people do not only
work for money and benefits
companies with good reputation generate superior financial performance. Basic OB model: individual levelgroup levelorganization system level
Every level can affect how level above or below might operate
Challenge at the individual level:
Individual differences: personality, perception, values and attitude influence people’s
behavior, characteristics are intact when people come into an org, and they are very
difficult to be altered.
Job satisfaction (+ve feeling about your job resulting from an evaluation of its
characteristics): relatively LOW in Canada. People who are more satisfied are more likely
to engage in the above and beyond ORGANIZAITON CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR.
Dissatisfaction is related to ABSENTEEISM AND TURNOVER.
Motivation: being treated fairly and equitably
Empowerment: managers are referred to COACHES, ADVISORS, SPONSORS,
FACILITANOR, but not boss. Employees are referred to ASSOCIATES, TEAMMATE.
Managers give up control and employees will learn to take responsibilities for their work
and make decision at operating levels.
Behaving ethically: people face ethical dilemma and ethical choice (situation where
individuals have to define right or wrong). With cutbacks, competitionsemployees are
pressurized to break rules. Ethics is the moral values or principles.
Challenge at the group level: one’s behavior is not the same when behave alone and in a group
Working with others: need good interpersonal skills. High quality workforce require:
ability to communicate, think and solve problems, learn consciously, work with others,
demonstrate positive attitude, being responsible for one’s action.
Workforce diversity (the mix of people in organizations in terms of gender, race, ethnicity,
disability, sexual orientation, age, and demographic characteristics): different people with
different personal experiences and cultures will being different value into an
orgadaptation to interaction skills when working with different people.
Challenge at the organizational level: org is not the sum of all individuals and groups. Challenge such
as: change of workplace structure, committed employees, effective work, competition due to global
economyoperation oversea=have to manage people from different culture.
Improving customer services: management have to create a customer-responsive culture
in order to please the clients
Stimulating innovation and changes: employees can fasten or block the innovation.
Challenge is to stimulate employees’ tolerance and creativity towards change Use of temporary/contingent employees: downsize permanent jobs and opening to non-
permanents workers. Contingents workers lack security and stability compare to
permanent workers, thus they do not identify with the org.
Improving quality and productivity (performance measure including effectiveness (the
achievement of goals) and efficiency (ratio of effective works output to the input required
to produce the work)): increasing competition is forcing manager to reduce coasts, and
improve the quality of the products and the productivity. An org is productive when is
achieve its goals by transferring input to output at the LOWEST COST.
Developing effective employees: managing high rate of absenteeism (the failure to report
to work) and turnover (voluntary and involuntary withdrawal from an
organization.)need employees to develop organizational citizenship behavior
(discretionary behavior that go beyond the employees’ duties but can promote the
effectiveness of the org.
Helping employee with work-life balance: the work and non-work time is blurredif
cannot solve the problem, hard for the org to keep and attract capable and motivated
o Work life conflict:
Creation of global organization: the world never sleep
Communication technology allows employees to do their work whenever
Creating a positive work environment: can lead to a competitive advantages
o Positive organizational scholarship: studies how organization develop human
strengths, foster vitality and resilience, and unlock potential. Concept of reflected
best-self: try to exploit our strengths, do not focus on out limitation.
Responding to globalization: outsourced job for cheap manufacturing price. Internet
allow small companies to compete with large companies. People have to be capable to
work with people from different culture. Be more flexible and learn new skills, new way
Building block of OB: all contribute to the study of OB
1. psychology: science seek to measure, explain, change behavior of people and animal
contribute to: learning, motivation, personality, emotion, perception, training, leadership,
job satisfaction, performance, and attitude
analyze at individual level
2. social psychology: blend concept from psychology and sociology, focus on influence of people on
contribute to: behavioral change, attitude change, communication, group process, group
decision making, power and conflict analyze at group level
3. sociology: focus on social system in which individuals fill their role
contribute to: organizational change, organizational culture, communication, conflict,
analyze at group and org level
4. anthropology: study of society to learn about human and their activities.
Contribute to: comparative value, comparative attitude, cross-culture study,
organizational culture, organizational environment
Analyze at group and org level
The rigour of OB
OB look at consistencies: although people behave differently in the same situation, there
is always a fundamental common sense in the base that help us to predict
OB look beyond common sense: base on scientific study
o Systematic study: looking at relationship, attempting to attribute causes and
effects, and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence
o Evidence based management: basing managerial decision on the best available
o Intuition: a gut feeling not supported by research
OB has few absolute: human are very complex, so we cannot always make generalization.
OB take a contingency approach (approach taken by OB that considers behavior within
the context in which it occurs.
The fundamentals of OB
OB considers the multiple level in an org: individual, group and organizational
OB is built from the wisdom and research of multiple discipline, including psychology,
sociology, social psychology, and anthropology
OB take a systematic approach to the study of organizational phenomena, it is research-
OB takes a contingency/occasional approach to the consideration of organizational
phenomena. Recommendations depend on the situation.
1. Is family an organization?
Yes, family is an organization. According to the definition, an organization is consciously coordinated
social unit that are composed of groups of people, and they functioning on a relatively continuous
basis to achieve a common goal. When 2 people get married, they consciously decide to form a social
unit. And the role of the each person is clear: the man being the father and husband, and the woman
being the mother and wife. Each of them have their own role to play in the family. For example: the father or mother or both have to work and earn money to afford a living, and they have to teach their
children. The mother has to cook, and doing the laundry. The father has to work in the garden. These
are all the possible roles that each person could accomplish in the family. It matches the definition of
2. what are the challenges and opportunities that managers face in todays’ workplace?
Challenge: individual difference, job satisfaction, motivation, improving job quality, improving
customers services, developing effective employee
Opportunities: empowerment to employees, use of temporary employees, globalization (outsourced
job for cheap prices)
3. what are the 3 level of analysis in OB model? Are they related? How?
Three level: individual, group, and organizational system level
An individual will not behave the same when he is alone and when he is in a group. His behavior will
be changed depend on the situation. Same wise, an organizational system is not the sum of all
individuals and groups. However, each level can affect how the level above or below might operate.
Fro example: there are challenges at the individual level such as individual difference which means
that each person has his own values based on their past experience and cultures. When those
individuals get together, their personal characteristics create the challenges at the group level such as
each members of the group can work with others and the workforce diversity. All of the challenges at
the individual and group level can influence at the organizational level. For example, dissatisfied
employees may not provide very qualified customer services and satisfied employees, and people
from different background may not accept the innovation and changes in the organization to the same
extend. All of those behavior will influence the success of the organization. Organizational Behavior Chapter 2 2/17/2013 1:05:00 PM
Perception: the process by which individual organize and interpret their impressions to give meaning
to their environment.
Why it is important in the study of OB? Because people’s behavior is based on their
perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. The world as it is perceived is the world
that is behaviorally important.
Why study perception?
o Understand how people make attribution about event
o We do not see reality, we interpret what we see and call it reality
o Attribution process guide our behavior.
Factors that influence Perception:
1. the perceiver: influenced by personal characteristics of individual (attitudes, motives, interests, past
experience, expectation). People with positive perception are enthusiastic, happy, kind0hearted, etc.
people with negative perception were related to increased narcissism and antisocial behavior.
2. the target: attractiveness. Novelty, motion, sounds, size, and othe