The Individual in the Organization:
Chapter 7, Motivation Concepts
Be Able to:
Describe the three key elements of motivation.
Identify early theories of motivation and evaluate their applicability today.
Contrast goal-setting theory and management by objectives.
Demonstrate how organizational justice is a refinement of equity theory.
Apply key tenets of expectancy theory to motivating employees.
Motivation is: the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of
effort toward attaining a goal.
Intensity: how hard a person tries.
Direction: where the effort needs to go toward; not just everywhere.
Persistence: How long an individual can last doing this thing.
Motivation is based on: Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
[Lower order needs]: satisfied outside body
[Higher order needs]: satisfied inside body
1. Physiological (hunger, thirst, shelter, etc) [Lower order needs]
2. Safety [Lower order needs]
3. Social (affection, belongingness, friendship, acceptance) [Higher order needs]
4. Esteem [Higher order needs]
5. Self-actualization (Drive to become what we are capable of becoming; growth, achieving
potential, self-fulfillment) [Higher order needs]
This usually applies to the U.S. culture. Often different for Asian or some European cultures.\
Douglas McGregor proposes Theories X and Y
Theory X: Managers believe employees inherently dislike work, so they must be directed/coerced into it.
Theory X: Employees love work! It’s natural. An average person can learn to accept or seek responsibility.
Neither are properly supported though. Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory(motivation-hygiene theory): he asked people how they felt their job
was good, or bad.
Good: Job security, Organization’s financial stability, achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility,
advancement, growth.(Motivation Factors)
Bad: policy and admin, lack of career future, dislike of position, supervision, relationship with supervisor,
work conditions, salary, relationship with peers. (Hygiene Factors)
Theory also not well supported because it relies on self-reports; when things are good, people take
credit, but blame others when things are bad. People have different interpretations.
McClelland’s theory of needs:
Need for achievement: the drive to excel, to achieve in relationship to a set of standards. They
like having probability of success at 50/50
Need for power: the need to make others behave in a way they would not otherwise
Need for Affiliation: the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
Contemporary Theories of Motivation:
Self-Determination theory: people prefer to feel like they have control over their actions, e.g. someone
feels better at a volunteer job rather than the same job but with a salary. Based on -