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MIMM 314 (2)
Chapter 2


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Microbiology and Immun (Sci)
MIMM 314

Chapter 2 The Front Line of Host Defense Phagocytes may take up the pathogen before it enters cells, while NK cells can directly recognize and kill cells infected with some intracellular pathogens. NK cells are instrumental in keepeing some viral infections in check until an AIR has been generated, after which CTLs are ableto take over the role of killing virus-infected cells. Site of Extracellular: Interstitial Extracellular: Intracellular: Intracellular: Infection paces, blood, lymph Epithelial surfaces Cytoplasmic Vesicular Protective Complement Antimicrobial NK cells T & NK cells dep. Immunity Phagocytosis peptides CTL cytotoxic macrophage Antibodies Antibodies (IgA) activation Direct mechanisms of tissue damage by pathogens: ● exotoxin production ● endotoxin ● direct cytopathic effect Some diseases include smallpox, hepatitis, Plague, Meningitis, Pheumonia, Diphteria, Tetanus, Cholera, Typhoid fever Indirect mechanisms of tissues damage by pathogens: ● immune complexes ● anti-host antibody ● cell-mediated immunity Some diseases include: Tuberculosis, Rheumatic fever, Hemolytic anemia, kidney disease Routes of infection for pathogen: see fig. 2.5 Stages of Adherence to Local infection, Local infection of Adaptive infection& epithelium penetration of tissues Immunity AIR response epithelium Protection -normal flora -wound healing; -complement, -infection against -antimicrobial cytokines, chemokines cleared by infection -local proteins and -phagocytes, NK specific chemical peptides, -activation of antibody factors phagocytes, and macrophages complement destroy -DCs migrate to lymph -T-cell -phagocytes invating nodes to initiate AIR dependent (esp. in lungs) microorganisms; -blood clotting help limit macrophage -activation of gamma spread of infection activation T cells? -cytotoxic CTLs Barriers preventing pathogens from crossing epithelia Skin Gut Lungs Eyes/Nose Mechanical Epithelia cells joined by tight junctions. Longitudinal of air or fluid. Movement of Tears flow mucus by cilia Nasal cilia Chemical Fatty Acids FA Low PH enzymes in tears Enzymes pepsin) (lysozyme) Anti bacterial peptides Microbiological Norma flora l Other antibacterial and antifungal peptides mentioned in the book: cryptidins or alpha-defensins (peneth c
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