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Huetel et al. - Chp 6 Summary Notes (From Neuronal to Hemodynamic Activity)

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NSCI 201
Evan Balaban

CHP 6. FROM NEURONAL TO HEMODYNAMIC ACTIVITY SUMMARY 2 primary roles of neurons - integration & signaling does not require external sources of energy after integration & signaling neurons must restore the concentration gradients requires external sources of energy primary metabolites of neurons - glucose & oxygen glucose & O2: important for the synthesis of ATP vascular system - arteries, capillaries, veins (are all present at different spatial scales) changes in the vascular system in response to neuronal activity may occur in brain areas far away from neuronal activity vascular changes are partly initiated by flow-controlling substances released by neurons into the extracellular space central DA & NE projection systems may exert direct neuronal control of pial arteries, arterioles, and capillaries unknown whether these systems influence fMRI measures. fMRI relies on the change in oxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) deoxygenated hemoglobin has magnetic properties that distort some types of MR images changes in oxygenated Hb are a way to measure brain function - based on blood-oxygen-level dependent contrast neuronal activity can be characterized as integrative or signaling integrative activity: collection of inputs from other neurons through dendritic or somatic connections signaling activity: transmission of the outcome of an integrative process ion channels in neurons create concentration gradients inside neuron: greater K+ outside neuron: greater Na+, Ca2+, Cl- NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND ACTION POTENTIONALS a single EPSP or IPSP is transitoryglutamate: most important excitatory NT - released by 90% of all neurons opens Na+ channels (Na+ flows into the cell) Na+ flux into the neuron decreases the electric potential glutamate NMDA receptor: admits Ca2+ into the cell after a post-synaptic membrane potential is reached  GABA: influx of Cl into the neuron or efflux of K+ out CEREBRAL METABOLISM: NEURONAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION blood glucose conc. = 90 mg/dL (brain uses ~10%) aerobic glycolysis: 36 ATP molecules per 1 glucose anaerobic glycolysis: 2 ATP molecules per 1 glucose inefficient, but 100 times faster then aerobic glycolysis total energy cost of IPSP's
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