NSCI 201 Chapter Notes -Anaerobic Glycolysis, Nmda Receptor, Blood Sugar

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19 Apr 2012
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CHP 6. FROM NEURONAL TO HEMODYNAMIC ACTIVITY
SUMMARY
2 primary roles of neurons - integration & signaling
does not require external sources of energy
after integration & signaling neurons must restore the concentration gradients
requires external sources of energy
primary metabolites of neurons - glucose & oxygen
glucose & O2: important for the synthesis of ATP
vascular system - arteries, capillaries, veins (are all present at different spatial scales)
changes in the vascular system in response to neuronal activity may occur in brain areas far
away from neuronal activity
vascular changes are partly initiated by flow-controlling substances released by neurons into
the extracellular space
central DA & NE projection systems may exert direct neuronal control of pial arteries, arterioles,
and capillaries
unknown whether these systems influence fMRI measures.
fMRI relies on the change in oxygenated hemoglobin (Hb)
deoxygenated hemoglobin has magnetic properties that distort some types of MR images
changes in oxygenated Hb are a way to measure brain function - based on blood-oxygen-level
dependent contrast
neuronal activity can be characterized as integrative or signaling
integrative activity: collection of inputs from other neurons through dendritic or somatic
connections
signaling activity: transmission of the outcome of an integrative process
ion channels in neurons create concentration gradients
inside neuron: greater K+
outside neuron: greater Na+, Ca2+, Cl-
NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND ACTION POTENTIONALS
a single EPSP or IPSP is transitory
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