NSCI 201 Chapter Notes - Chapter 26: Betz Cell, Brodmann Area, Visual Cortex

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NSCI 201 (20.26)
Asscn cortex, Recognition
29th March 2016
Association Cortex and Recognition!
Extent of the human association cortices: process language, emotion, etc. !
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Structure of the human neocortex, including the association cortices!
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All brain regions had 6 layers at some point in time— in some areas, layers added, fused, lost.!
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Brodmann areas used as general coordinate system. !
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NSCI 201 (20.26)
Asscn cortex, Recognition
29th March 2016
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Cortical lamination!!
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Paleocortex: 3 layers, first to evolve!
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Archicortex: 4 layers, evolved before neocortex!
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Neocortex: 6- layered structure, with striations (e.g.
due to Betz cells)!
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Canonical neocortical circuitry!
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Each layer gets inputs from different regions of
the brain, plays a different role. !
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L1-2 project to other cortical areas!
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L3 projects to contralateral cortical areas!
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L4 alone receives thalamic input!
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L5 is output layer to deeper, subcortical structures!
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L6 is output layer to thalamus!
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Layers can in fact be receiving input about the
same problem, from different structures,
modulated by the same brainstem areas. Can be
viewed as different ways of solving an issue. !
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NSCI 201 (20.26)
Asscn cortex, Recognition
29th March 2016
!
Major connections of the neocortex!
Overall connectivity of the association cortices!
Association cortices are associative— they receive inputs from and send outputs to a lot of areas
(motor, visual, somatosensory), allowing these stimuli to interact. !
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There are frontal, parietal, and temporal association cortices, which have complex interactions
with both motor and premotor cortices, and also other primary and secondary sensory cortical
regions.!
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Both top-down and bottom up processing: association cortices can influence primary and
secondary sensory processing as well. !
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Brainstem modulatory inputs are indirect. !
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Most cortical-cortical projections are from corresponding regions. !
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