NSCI 201 Chapter Notes - Chapter 19: Cerebellum, Pontine Nuclei, Cuneate Nucleus

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NSCI 201 (17.19)
Movement/ Cerebellum
17th March 2016
Movement and the Cerebellum!
The cerebellum is involved in fine motor control, smoothing out motions, less so in cognition.
Compares intended/ actual output, makes corrections. 14.16 for organisation of neural structures
involved in motion. !
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Major structures in the cerebellum!
Peduncles: white matter tracts, bring information in and out of cerebellum!
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Deep cerebellar nuclei: Output structures. Receive input from, send info to cortex through
peduncles!
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Cortex: Regulates deep cerebellar nuclei function, receives input from peduncles. !
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Organization and subdivisions of the cerebellum!
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(Inflated view)!!
Three major subdivisions of cerebellum: Spino,
cerebro, and vestibulo. Receive different types
of input, perform different types of processing.!
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Distribution of proximal/distal representation
preserved at spinocerebellar level: proximal
inputs represented in vermis, distal in
paravermal areas.!
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Cerebrocerebellum receives inputs from almost
all cortical regions through pontine nuclei!
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Vestibulocerebellum is distinct; divided into
modulus and floculus, function in maintaining
balance and eye movement function!
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NSCI 201 (17.19)
Movement/ Cerebellum
17th March 2016
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Organization and subdivisions of the cerebellum (Cont’d)!
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(View of cerebellum from behind; shows bihemispheric layout)!
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Cerebrum vs cerebellum: In cerebrum (cortex),
most processing is contralateral. In cerebellum,
ipsilateral projections. !
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3 deep cerebellar nuclei, with peduncles as
efferents. !
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Superior peduncle sends dentate and
interposed efferents to cortex through thalamus,
middle has afferents from spinal cord and
brainstem, inferior is mixed efferent/afferent,
include efferents from fastigial nucleus. !
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(View removed from brainstem)!!
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Folia present on cerebellum: Like gyri/sulci in
cortex, but finer!
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(Cross-sectional view of cerebellum)!!
White matter tracts running through gray matter!
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NSCI 201 (17.19)
Movement/ Cerebellum
17th March 2016
Components of the brainstem and diencephalon related to the cerebellum!
Interactions between cerebrum and cerebellum transmitted mainly through brainstem.
Cerebellum receives motor/ somatosensory information (Compare with basal ganglia: receives
inputs from almost all cortical regions). Information goes back to cortex through thalamus. !
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Pontine nuclei : Where cortical inputs synapse in brainstem. !
Inferior olive: Copy of cortical/ output signals, compared by cerebellum to find error signals. !
Vestibular nuclei: Vestibular information from ear, involved in reflex responses!
Dorsal nucleus of Clarke/ external cuneate nucleus: Where spinal sensory information synapses,
passing information to cerebellum. !
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Functional organisation of the inputs to the cerebellum!
Two major tracts to get information to cerebellum from cortex: Red nucleus/ pontine nucleus. Go
to the same place. Red nucleus- inferior olive connection contains signals of intent as well as
actual output: basis for error signal. Output signals from green paths (spinal cord/ vestibular nuc)
allow adjustment of motor plan at cortical level. !
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