11. 14 functions of cortisol in stress: mobilize energy sources to increase plasma [c] of amino acids, glucose, glycerol, low plasma [c] of cortisol can lead to death, absence always fatal. Cortisol: cortisol used in treatment of arthritis (inflammation of joints), graft rejection, allergy, offers resistance to damaging effects of stress, + maintain homeostasis, reduces inflammatory response when injury or infection, dampens fever. Growth hormone: anterior pituitary, affects postnatal growth, bone lengthening by stimulating maturation & cell division of chondrocytes, has indirect effect, through control over igf-1, also directly stimulates protein synthesis in tissues/organs. Igf-1: calcitonin, estrogen, testosterone, parathyroid hormone, cortisol, t3. Kidneys: control calcium excretion --filtration and reabsorption, also regulate phosphate ion balance. Gastrointestinal tract: hormonal control over calcium absorption in small intestine. 11. 21- hormonal controls: plasma calcium [c] under parathyroid, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d, and calcitonin. D: addition of oh groups in liver & kidney. Calcitonin: thyroid"s parafollicular cells, under control of extracellular ca [c, stimulate formation of vitamin d.