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Chapter 1

PHIL 237 - Chapter 1: Moral Theories

5 Pages

Course Code
PHIL 237
Sarah Stroud

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Moral TheoryEthics is primarily divided into two main concepts what is good and what is rightTheories of the RightThree resulting kinds of actions1Obligatory actionsactions one morally ought to do2OptionalNeutral actionsactions that are not morally obligated and which are not wrong3Wrong actionsactions one ought not to doTheories of the GoodThings may have intrinsic inherent value or extrinsic or instrumental valueIntrinsic goods may be further divided to three kinds1Intrinsically good2Intrinsically badevil3Intrinsically valueneutralTwo Aims of a Moral Theory 1Theoretical Aimto discover the underlying features of actions persons and other items of moral evaluation that make them rightgood and thus explain why items have the moral properties that they do2Practical Aimto offer practical guidance for how one might arrive at correct or justified moral verdicts about moral concernsMoral PrinciplesDefinition general moral statements that specify conditions under which an action is right or wrong and something is intrinsically good or badPrinciples dealing with action are principles of right conduct and principles dealing with goodness are principles of valueStructures of a Moral TheoryValuebased moral theories take the concept of the good to be more basic than that of the right and therefore define rightness of actions in terms of and consideration for intrinsic goodness Dutybased moral theories take the concept of duty to be more basic and characterize rightness independent of considerations of goodness deontology
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