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Chapter 23

PHYS 142 Chapter 23 SmartNotes.docx

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McGill University
PHYS 142
Yoichi Miyahara

PHYS 142 Chapter 23 SmartNotes  23.1 Properties of Electric Charges o Electric Charges  Positive (Protons)  Negative (Electrons) o Properties  Charges of the same sign repel one another and charges with opposite signs attract one another.  Electric Charge is Conserved in an Isolated System. The electrified state is due to a transfer of charge from one object to the other.  Electrons are transferred in the rubbing process from the glass to the silk.  The electric charge q is said to be quantized, where q is the standard symbol used for charge as a variable. That is, electric charge exists as discrete “packets” and we can write , where N is some integer.  23.2 Charging Objects by induction o Insulators  Examples  Glass  Rubber  Dry Wood  How to Charge an Insulator o Conductors  Examples  Copper  Aluminum  Silver  How to Charge a Conductor  Induction o o Charging an object by induction requires no contact with the object inducing the charge.  Conduction o Charging by rubbing o o SemiConductors  Semiconductors are a third class of materials, and their electrical properties are somewhere between those of insulators and those of conductors. The electrical properties of semiconductors can be changed over many orders of magnitude by the addition of controlled amounts of certain atoms to the materials.  Examples o Silicon o Germanium  23.3 Coulomb’s Law o Coulomb’s Law   
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