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PHYS 142 (8)
Chapter 25

PHYS 142 Chapter 25 SmartNotes.docx

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PHYS 142
Yoichi Miyahara

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PHYS 142 Chapter 25 SmartNotes  25.1: Electric Potential and Potential Difference o Electric Potential  Definition  o Scalar quantity o SI Unit  Volt (V) = 1 J/C  Change in the Electric Potential Energy of a System   Note:  We often take the value of the electric potential to be zero at come convenient point in an electric field. o Potential Difference  Definition  o SI Unit  Volt (V) = 1 J/C  Potential Difference between Two Points   Note:  Potential Difference is not the same as Potential Energy. Potential difference between A and B exists solely because a source charge and depends on the source charge distribution. For the potential energy to exist, we must have a system of two or more charges. The potential energy belongs to the system and changes only if a charge is moved relative to the rest of the system. o Electron Volt (eV)  Defined as the energy a charge-field system gains or loses when a charge of magnitude e is moved through a potential difference of 1 V.  o Electric Field can also be expressed in Volts/Meter (1 N/C = 1 V/m)  25.2: Potential Difference in a Uniform Electric Field o Potential Difference between two points in a uniform electric field   The negative sign indicated that the electric potential at point B is lower than point A.  Electric field lines always point in the direction of decreasing electric potential.   In a system consisting of a positive charge and an electric field, the electric potential energy of the system decreases when the charge moves in the direction of the field (Negative Work) o  A system consisting of a negative charge and an electric field gains electric potential energy when the charge moves in the direction of the field. It accelerates in the opposite direction of the field. (Positive Work)  Change in Potential between two points in a uniform Electric Field   Change in Potential Energy of the Charge-Field System  o Equipotential Surface  The name equipotential surface is given to any surface consisting distribution of points having the same electric potential.   25.3: Electric Potential and Potential Energy Due to Point Charges o o Equation for Potential Difference This is independent of the path between A and B Depends only on the radian coordinates of rA and rB. o Conservative Field  Definition  We define a field that is related to a conservative force as a
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