Textbook Notes (368,192)
Canada (161,707)
POLI 211 (29)


4 Pages
Unlock Document

Political Science
POLI 211
Fillippo Sabetti

China Historical Background • 1912 Manchu dynasty overthrown by revolutionary movement led by Sun Yat- sen ◦ founded Republic of China (ROC) ◦ ideal to transform CHina into a modern, democratic, affluent country ◦ inspired by Western model • political turmoil led to Yuan Shikai, a Qing general turned president, attempting to restore imperial rule and make himself emperor • 1916 Yuan is dead ◦ China splits into warring territories controlled by warlords ▪ Zhang Zuolin in Manchuria+Northern China ▪ Wu Peifu in Yangtzu area ▪ Sun Chuangang in southeaset provinces • Sun established the Kuomintang (KMT) nationalist ◦ sought Soviet support ◦ Three Principles of the People: nationalism, democracy, and people's livelihood ▪ democratic socialism with Chinese characteristics ◦ General Chiang Kai-shek appointed commander of the army ◦ opted for non liberal strategy in state-building ◦ army heavily infiltrated by communists ▪ ordered by Moscow to join KMT and develop CCP's influence in KMT ◦ Chiang forces communists out of the KMT ◦ establishes a nationalist government in Nanjing, the capital of the Republic of China, unifying the country • communists become rebels in China's mountainous areas ("Soviet regions") ◦ Chinese Soviet Republic established in Jiangxi province ◦ 1934 Communist base is attacked and they are chased across the south and southwest provinces by the KMT army (Long March) ▪ during it, Mao Zadong grasps military and political leadership of CCP by ousting those Chinese communists from Moscow ◦ founded a new base in Yan'an and thwarted the KMT offensive • 1928-1936 golden years of the KMT rule ◦ industry, commerce, and trade grew • Sino-Japanese war ◦ all-out Japanese invasion ◦ communists get intellectuals on their side ◦ nationalist government forced to shift priority from mopping up the communists to preparing for war ◦ Japan launches all-out attack at Peking, Beijing ◦ KMT troops in large-scale retreat ◦ Japanese military spread thin over large China ◦ CCP finds great opportunity to expand in rural China ◦ war altered the balance between the KMT and CCP so that, when war ended communists controlled north China and Manchuria • nationalist troops demolished in several decisive campaigns • Chaing Kai-shek leads millions of KMT loyalists to island of Taiwan ◦ People's Republic of China (PRC) formally established in Beijing ◦ Republic of China (ROC) migrates to Taiwan • to this day, Chinese civil war is still technically on • KMT attempted to monopolize mass media, but couldn't ◦ also failed to mobilize genuine peasant support ▪ CCP's shift from blatant class struggle to peasant nationalism ◦ China's choice narrowed down to two models: authoritarian statist or communist ◦ CCP won the civil war in 1949 • as Taiwan moved to liberalism, mainland China would later experience a shift from communism to the statist model that Taiwan had exemplified • reform in China today has rekindled a liberal-democratic tendency • Taiwan protected by the US through the Taiwan Relations Act • election of the blatantly pro-independence Chen Shui-bian from the Democratic Progressive Party as the ROC's president in 2000 further ruled the cross- Strait tension Developmental Stage of the Communist Regime • developmental stages of a Leninist regime ◦ 1) the initial transformation aimed at remaking the society ◦ 2) the reform backlash ◦ 3) the conservative consolidation • the initial transformation
More Less

Related notes for POLI 211

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.