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POLI 211 (29)
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China.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLI 211
Professor
Fillippo Sabetti
Semester
Fall

Description
China Historical Background • 1912 Manchu dynasty overthrown by revolutionary movement led by Sun Yat- sen ◦ founded Republic of China (ROC) ◦ ideal to transform CHina into a modern, democratic, affluent country ◦ inspired by Western model • political turmoil led to Yuan Shikai, a Qing general turned president, attempting to restore imperial rule and make himself emperor • 1916 Yuan is dead ◦ China splits into warring territories controlled by warlords ▪ Zhang Zuolin in Manchuria+Northern China ▪ Wu Peifu in Yangtzu area ▪ Sun Chuangang in southeaset provinces • Sun established the Kuomintang (KMT) nationalist ◦ sought Soviet support ◦ Three Principles of the People: nationalism, democracy, and people's livelihood ▪ democratic socialism with Chinese characteristics ◦ General Chiang Kai-shek appointed commander of the army ◦ opted for non liberal strategy in state-building ◦ army heavily infiltrated by communists ▪ ordered by Moscow to join KMT and develop CCP's influence in KMT ◦ Chiang forces communists out of the KMT ◦ establishes a nationalist government in Nanjing, the capital of the Republic of China, unifying the country • communists become rebels in China's mountainous areas ("Soviet regions") ◦ Chinese Soviet Republic established in Jiangxi province ◦ 1934 Communist base is attacked and they are chased across the south and southwest provinces by the KMT army (Long March) ▪ during it, Mao Zadong grasps military and political leadership of CCP by ousting those Chinese communists from Moscow ◦ founded a new base in Yan'an and thwarted the KMT offensive • 1928-1936 golden years of the KMT rule ◦ industry, commerce, and trade grew • Sino-Japanese war ◦ all-out Japanese invasion ◦ communists get intellectuals on their side ◦ nationalist government forced to shift priority from mopping up the communists to preparing for war ◦ Japan launches all-out attack at Peking, Beijing ◦ KMT troops in large-scale retreat ◦ Japanese military spread thin over large China ◦ CCP finds great opportunity to expand in rural China ◦ war altered the balance between the KMT and CCP so that, when war ended communists controlled north China and Manchuria • nationalist troops demolished in several decisive campaigns • Chaing Kai-shek leads millions of KMT loyalists to island of Taiwan ◦ People's Republic of China (PRC) formally established in Beijing ◦ Republic of China (ROC) migrates to Taiwan • to this day, Chinese civil war is still technically on • KMT attempted to monopolize mass media, but couldn't ◦ also failed to mobilize genuine peasant support ▪ CCP's shift from blatant class struggle to peasant nationalism ◦ China's choice narrowed down to two models: authoritarian statist or communist ◦ CCP won the civil war in 1949 • as Taiwan moved to liberalism, mainland China would later experience a shift from communism to the statist model that Taiwan had exemplified • reform in China today has rekindled a liberal-democratic tendency • Taiwan protected by the US through the Taiwan Relations Act • election of the blatantly pro-independence Chen Shui-bian from the Democratic Progressive Party as the ROC's president in 2000 further ruled the cross- Strait tension Developmental Stage of the Communist Regime • developmental stages of a Leninist regime ◦ 1) the initial transformation aimed at remaking the society ◦ 2) the reform backlash ◦ 3) the conservative consolidation • the initial transformation
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