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POLI 211 Comp Poli Textbook - Mexico Summary Notes

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Political Science
POLI 211
Fillippo Sabetti

Colonial PeriodSpanish Conquest in 1521Cortes defeats Montezuma in that yearIdeological bedrockcorporatism officials viewed responsible for closely regulating and coordinating various economic and social groups within society business labour agrarian coops cultural groups this was also a topdown strategy as the state had control over which groups to recognize and howvertical power structure gave little selfgovernance to colonies allout war for power following independence in 1821labour relations and landholding patterns established during colonialism set stage for future economicpolitical problemsCatholicismCorporatismview of society as an organic whole individuals belonged naturally to social groups which are all needed for harmonious operation of societyinterests of state over interests of single groupindividual this resulted in government that was statist and patrimonial colonial administrators all Spanishborn who would only be in colonies for a rotational period this ensured loyalty to Spanish crowncabildos municipal counciles staffed by colonists who would run daytoday activities of town life however these were relatively isolated from each other meaning that Mexico lacked centralized institutions following independencesocialclass relations criollos pureblooded Spanish descent occupied upper class indigena the lower class and mestizos mixedblood in between Made unified Mexican identity difficultIndependence and the Era of the Caudillosthseeds of Mexican independence sown during Spanish decline in 17 centuryBourbon Charles III enacted economicpolitical reforms that spurred colonial economies but also increased colonial taxation like the American revolution taxation without representation became a concern following Peninsular War when France captured Spanish king confusion over ultimate authority was widespread1810 two priestsHidalgo and Morelosrallies peasant army around symbol of Virgin of Guadalupe an apparition of the Virgin that had a dark indigenous complexion one of the most important symbols of Mexican nationalism as it was a blend of European and indigenous cultures this proindependence movement was eventually suppressed but in 1820 Spanish king passed liberal constitution due to parliament pressure conservatives in Mexico who previously fought against independence then feared contagion of liberal ideals and pushed for Mexican sovereignty Mexican independence then had conservative antiliberal tinge
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