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POLI 212 (46)
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POLI 212 Reading Notes.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLI 212
Professor
Hudson Meadwell

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Chapter 1 Themes and Implications The World of States:  A country’s relative position to other states affects its ability to manage domestic and international issues. o Britain’s control over power and alliances in the 19 century show this o As does Blair’s trying to cling to a relationship with the USA as Britain’s influence dwindles th  Fell to “second-tier” status during the 20 century as their “white dominions” (Canada, US, New Zealand, Australia)  Independence pressure in other colonies led to their separation during WWII/the postwar period  Legacy of WWII involvement, permanent member of UN Security Council o However, secondary in relationship with US, resulting in post-9/11 pressures  Britain’s hesitant relations with the EU are controversial Governing the Economy:  Since industrial revolution, Britain has depended on competitiveness abroad  Britain needs to conduct economic action under the assumption that they will not again be a hegemon, and must thus remain competitive The Democratic Idea:  The role of the British monarchy is a question coming to the forefront of British society  November 1999, traditional House of Lords was abolished  Issues of constitution and unity with respect to Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales The Politics of Collective Identity:  British empire and aftermath is central to identity  The multiracial society resulting from decolonization has not been well accepted in Britain  Especially post-7/7, immigration a key issue  Issues of gender politics emerging Chapter 11 June 2005 Merkel’s arrow election victory  Troubles were unique in that they were an effect of a diverse multiparty system that was unusual for Germany post-WWII. Profile of Germany  Considered both Eastern and Western European  Divided into 16 federal states  Population of 82.4 million  Evenly divided between Catholics and Protestants  Relatively homogenous despite: immigration from Turkey (right-less workers from 1960s), Indian technology workers, migration across EU borders  54% of land in agricultural production  Unnatural borders have led to conflict Critical Junctures:  1806-1871 Nationalism and German Unification o State building requires an extension of collective identity beyond the family, village, and local region to one encompassing a broader collection of peoples. o Nation states can promote economic growth more easily than fragmented political entities can. o Military strength is a fundamental tool that many nation-states use in their formation and consolidation  1871-1918 Second Reich o Bismarck allowed for male suffrage in the lower house, but concentrated power in the upper house o Primary goal was rapid industrialization, helped by state power and banking system, thus no British/American-esque free market trial and error o Led to opposition:  Pressure to provide basic rights to liberal (free-market)/middle class forces  Growth of the working middle class and Social Democratic Party (SPD)  Persecuted and tolerated by Bismarck; banned SPD in 1878, but created welfare state in the 1880s  “Cultural struggle” movement against the Catholic church  Relatively unsuccessful participation in the “struggle for Africa”  1919-1933 Weimar Republic o Second Reich ended when Wilhelm II abdicated post-WWI  Followed by the SPD  First task of new government to surrender to allies received blame for problems actually caused by Second Reich/WWI o Democratic, but undermined by parties on the extreme right and left o 1920s Hitler joins Nazi party, preaching hatred of the left, internationalism, and non-Aryans  Exacerbated by the Great Depression o Despite underwhelming democratic success, Nazis gradually gained cabinet positions (Hitler chancellor)  Once in power started banning political parties  1933-1945 Third Reich o Early years had two main goals:  Consolidate and institutionalize central political power  Rebuilding the economy that had suffered through the crisis of the 1920s and Great Depression of the 1930s o Policy suppressed trade unions and was thus big-business friendly o Nationalism flared under warrior glorification and the use of scapegoats (homosexuals, ethnic minorities, Jews obvs.) o Rejected provisions of the Treaty of Versailles, remilitarized the Rhineland o WWII instigated with invasion of Poland in 1939, etc. etc.  1945-1990 A divided Germany o Occupied by allies from 1945-1949 o Divided into Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) in the west and communist German Democratic Republic (GDR) in the east Cold War, division of Berlin o FRG merged Catholics and Protestants into Christian Democratic Union (CDU)  Reshaped conservatism as something that is compatible with democracy, social welfare, antinationalism, and antimilitarism.  Governed alone for first 20 years of FRG o FRG became parliamentary democracy constitutional provisions for free elections, civil liberties, individual rights, independent judiciary o Experienced stability and economic growth for 40 years o Post-war settlement unique:  Highly organized business community  Weak central state and strong regional governments  Active tradition of worker participation within a strong labor movement (corporatism)  Influential quasi-public institutions shaping and implementing public policy at all levels of society  Continued commitment to the welfare state by both major parties o GDR a one party Soviet-occupied state o Provided employment and housing for citizens, yet was Stalinist and rigid  Citizens attempting to flee to West Germany were shot on spot o GDR one of the Warsaw Pact’s strongest economies, but was loyal to the Soviets in international affairs  1990-1998 The challenge of German unification o Berlin Wall falls in November 1989  Currency reform fueled immigration in summer of 1990 o Official unification under Chancellor Helmut Kohl  Stressed Germany’s budget East Germany’s economy backward to what economists predicted, very behind in terms of technology o Trickled over high employment sparked far-right groups, scapegoating of Turks, and violence against minority groups o Kohl lost support by 1998, effects of sugar-coating wore off o SPD elected in coalition with Greens center-left government  1998-2001 Germany in the euro era o Two criticisms of German international relations:  Fear of a too-powerful Germany  Opposite problem economic giant/political dwarf syndrome (benefitting from strong world economy for 50 years without political responsibility)  Integrated Europe promised to solve both of these problems o Some worry that German integration into Europe would threaten the economic and political stability they enjoyed  Exacerbated by 25% drop in euro value (1999-200) and 40% increase in 2007 volatile  Lack of control over monetary/fiscal policies put constraints on Chancellor Schröder’s social spending  Worry about German identity with movement over borders becoming more easy  Issue of the placement of democracy in a nation with supranational monetary policy  2001-2005 Germany after September 11 o Sensitivity to Nazi regime led to liberal asylum laws  Conflicted with the knowledge that some 9/11 terrorists had lived in Germany  Aggressive action had to be taken by Schröder/Merkel, this didn’t sit well with the German populous. o Opposition to Iraq war (especially in Schröder’s campaigning) opposite to Bush, drove wedge in German-American relations  Exoneration of Moroccan terrorists, released by German judges because Americans would not release witnesses (that may have exonerated them)  2005-Present Germany after the French and Dutch veto of the European Constitution o Germany approved EU constitution in 2005 by large margin BUT o 3 Exogenous problems in moving toward desired social market economy:  The high-skill/production model of Germany being matched by India and China Germans cannot easily keep up with labor and wages, yet have untapped human capital  Costs of unification have affected market competitiveness likely economic stagnation  Institutional architecture of EU is opposite to social market economy model, which had a coordinated set of institutions working with actors from the private sector in ways that fostered relationships (not deals) and produced high economic growth, high living standards, and market and political peace. EU is economically liberal o 1 Endogenous problem:  Germans have lost institutional memory Role in a world of states:  Would normally be dictated by militarism. But other states are wary of German nationalism/militarism, especially in light of the Third Reich Governing the economy:  Delayed unification left Germany behind in colonialism o Aggressive catch-up associated with aggressive agenda of Third Reich; were compatible Democratic idea:  Developed much later in Germany (1918) Chapter 16 Between 1948 and 1992, the Christian Democracy (DC) ruled Italian politics  The Communist party and neo-fascist party made up the opposition In 1994, Silvio Berlusconi came to power in a new center-right party  Berlusconi is extremely wealthy, owns four private TV networks, and advertising agency, a newspaper, an internet company, and a publishing house  The collapse of the old party system has made it possible to alternate between right-center and left-center political blocs, BUT: o The party system is extremely fragmented 9 distinct groups, each of whom could upset the narrow left-right balance on any given issue minor groups can have major influences Geographic Setting  Italy’s location + large coast make it a strategic crossroads; many nations have occupied or conquered parts of what is now Italy  Poorly endowed with industrial resources, thus delaying industrialization  Weakness and location made it easy prey pre-unification [1870]  Extreme regional differences o Political, social, cultural o Exacerbated by geography before modern transportation and communication were possible  Population of 59 million (similar to France and UK) o Rapidly aging, raises questions of pensions and immigration  Major US air force bases and fleets in Italy o Still key staging are for NATO post-Cold War Critical Junctures  1848-1870: The Risorgimento and Unification o In the mid-1800s…  Northern Italy: Kingdom of Sardinia/Austrian control  North-Center Italy: small duchies and principalities  Central Italy: Papal states  South of Rome to Sicily: Kingdom of the Two Sicilies o In the second half of the 1800s…  Extension of Piedmontese hegemony  In 1848, Statuto extended over whole country, gave crown more powers than democratic constitutions of 1848 o Risorgimento had narrow base of support, thus left social and poltical problems untouched [ignored the peasants] o Northern leaders/rich pursued laissez-faire policies in their own interests  By mid-1870s, free-market was failing to catch Italy up  1880s saw new tax policies and state involvement in the economy  Industrial employees didn’t outnumber agricultural employees until the 1950s  Late industrialization led to massive emigration (especially in the South)  Social safety valve decreased the likelihood of class warfare o Participation in WWI brought Italy in with the allies, but resulted in 600 000 deaths (mostly peasants)  When Italy was unhappy with the Treaty of Versailles, it abandoned it and legitimized its far-right uprising  1870-1922: The Liberal Regime (Constitutional Monarchy) o Liberal Party not so liberal tolerated corruption
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