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third world politics clapham.docx

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McGill University
Political Science
POLI 227
Rex Brynen

Third World Politics (Clapham) rd Colonialism is one of the only reasons we can intelligibly refer to the 3 world as having any kind of coherence- European colonialism created the global political and economic order Imposition of Colonial Rule - Technological basis, economic motive - Western Europe created new technologies and forms of organization which enabled them to control others and acquire wealth 3 types of colonialism: 1) Americas (rich in resources, easy to control) 2) Asia (rich but difficult to control) 3) Africa (poor and thus not really worth it for Europe) American colonization - Native populations were small to begin with and were virtually wiped out and replaced with white settlers - Destruction of native populations made European oriented economies/patterns of external settlement possible - US and Canada were temperate without easily exploitable mineral wealth so were confined to European settlement - Economies in South were dominated by slave labour and became dependent on it- imported workers and left them to figure stuff out for themselves - Latin America gained independence quite early- class has a high importance in the culture due to high levels of urbanization/industrialization and weakness/abscence of those linkages which bound followers to leaders and their replacement by exploitative relations derived from elite control- the result here is to enhance the state’s role and entrench a bureaucratic bourgeoise as guardians/beneficiaries - Boundaries/borders were established very arbitrarily and did not take into account indigenous societies or geographical zones Structure of Colonial Government - Political order with an administrative hierarchy - Force as the main tool to ensure compliance - Greatest force involved colonies of settlement accompanied by intensive production Effect of colonial rule was psychological because it was only by accepting and understanding the Europeans that they’d be able to defeat them Administrative structure was both centralized and authoritarian - Ruler overseas channelled order at the local level through the governor, then provincial commissioner to district commissioner then to local authorities - Gave rise to top-down, imposed kind of politics - Introduction of colonial economy gave rise to new social attitudes, institutions and forms of communication which differentiated the colonized peoples from outside people - Liberation from colonialism often involved using colonial institutions French Colonial Rule - Centralization and assimilation coupled with egalitarian ideals of 1789 - Native cultures were seen as worthless now, but they should be given a chance to assimilate because they were human beings too and everyone deserved equal chances - French viewed inferiority as cultural rather than genetic - Close ties with the natives because they had a very active role in their politics, so they inevitably had to work with them- this created a sophisticated indigenous elite British Colonial rule - did not believe assimilation was possible due to genetic inferiority of natives - ultimate goal was independence - colonies were seen as having distinctive characteristics of their own, as moving at their own pace towards different destinies - indirect rule- relied on local authorities/coopted elite- couldn’t give them too much power, however, or the colonial apparatus would be dismantled (Burma) - indirect rule was cheap and pleased native rulers by moderating the impact of an alien rule while also consolidating British power Nationalism and Decolonization - 2 World War produced and reflected a drastic shift in international power and status away from states of Western Europe and towards continental power - Fading determination - Anticolonial movements in Europe/US/Soviet Union - Japanese victories shattered the myth of imperial invincibility - Colonized were educated, especially at Western institutions, which gave them new ideas and new identities- realized they could rise up - They were mobilized by grievances and their ability to organize was influenced by resources and mobilizing force - People who mobilized were not desperately poor but not rich, they were generally people with dashed hopes - Deals were made with local leaders to gain power Colonial Response and The Transfer of Power - Balance between nationalism and compliance - If alternative government is not stable enough, colonial powers would not give up power Post colonialism, instruments of government were handed over to the native population- the state is still central to many post-c
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