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POLI 227 (58)
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Chapter 1

The Challenge of Third World Development chapter 1.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLI 227
Professor
Rex Brynen
Semester
Winter

Description
The Challenge of Third World Development Chapter 1: Commonalities between 3rd world countries: 1) Economic underdevelopment - Combo of low GDP/capita, high inequality, poor infrastructure, limited use of modern technology and low consumption of energy - Take into account all of this by using GDP, probability of not living until 40, % living on less than $2.50 a day and the inequality (how many more times income the top 20% is in charge of compared to the bottom 20%) - Per capita income has a negative correlation with poverty but it is not absolute 2) Social underdevelopment - Education, literacy, infant mortality rate, per capita income (HDI): 0-1, where 0 is bad and 1 is good - Overacheiving countries are those whose HDIs are better than would be expected given their income (i.e. Nigeria, China, Cuba), and underacheivers have low HDIs relative to their income (i.e. Turkey, India, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia) 3) Political underdevelopment - To what extent their governmental institutions have been specialized and differentiated and to what extent the government is responsive to a broad segment of society and respects human/individual rights - Democracy and socieconomic equality are seen as good because authoritarian regimes are only stable short term - “failed states” where warlords vy for control (i.e. Somalia, Afghanistan) rd - 3 world countries are unlikely to become democracies without reaching a minimum level of socioeconomic development but as they develop, citizens start to get educated and mobilized and demand more from their governments- governments cannot always meet these demands so the system may become overloaded and unstable - Countries need to attract foreign investment which they can only do by suppressing unions and depressing worker’s wages Causes of Underdevelopment 1) Modernization theory (50s-60s) - Created after many countries were granted independence, very optimistic - Asserts that LDCs should and could follow a similar developmental path to that of the West- to do this they have to acquire modern (read: Western) cultural values and political/economic institutions and do away with old traditional models (i.e. monarchy) - Modernization=education, urbanization, spread of the mass media, diffusion of values from developed to LDCs, foreign aid, creation of seperate, specialized insitutions with seperation of powers, bureaucracies, democracy However, often social and economic change contributed to political instability Conflict theory is a revised modernization theory - Believes LDCs would have to make choice between seemingly irreconcilable development goals Reconciliation theory is another revised modernization theory - With the right policies, seemingly incompatible goals can be achieved (i.e. Taiwan and South Korea can achieve rapid economic development with equitable income distribution) - Recognizes that not all LDCs are the same or similar and that traditional values do not always hinder a society - Difference
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