-Source of conflict is primarily cultural and not economic or ideological.
Conflict between the different groups of different civilizations.
The clash of civilization will dominate global politics.
-Conflicts between kings and princes, not nations.
-Following the Russian Revolution, conflicts of nations turned into conflicts of ideologies.
(communism, fascism-nazism, liberal democracy.)
-Conflicts between princes, nation-states and ideologies were primarily conflicts within
the Western civilization.
After the Cold War, conflicts moved between Western civilizations and non-Western
The nature of civilizations
-During Cold War: First, Second and Third Worlds.
-More relevant to group countries in terms of culture and civilization rather than political
and economic systems.
-Civilization: a cultural entity. Cultural heterogeneity between villages, regions, ethnic
groups, nationalities and religions. Highest cultural grouping, defined by common
elements such as language, history, religion, customs, institutions and by subjective
self-identification of people.
-Arabs, Chinese and Westerners aren’t include in a broad cultural entity. They form a
China: “a civilization pretending to be a state.
Other civilizations include several states- Arab civilization.
-Different levels of identity.
-Civilizations overlap and can include sub-civilizations.
Why civilizations will clash
-The major civilizations that will shape global politics: Western, Confucian, Japanese,
Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American and African civilization.
1) Differences among civilizations are basic. They are differentiated by history,
language, culture, tradition and religion--> different views on every aspect of life. “Theclashofcivilizations?”-SamuelHuntington
These differences are more important than the differences of political ideologies and
2) Interactions are becoming more important in today’s world. Interactions between
different civilizations make them more conscious of their differences (Immigration,
3) Economic modernization and social change separate people from their local identities
and weaken the nation state as a source of identity.
Fundamentalists fill this gap: Western Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism...
Basis for identity across the national boundaries and unite civilizations.
4) The growth of civilization-consciousness is enhanced b the dual role if the West.
-West is at a peak of power.
-A return to the roots phenomenon is occurring between Western civilizations.
“Asianiazation” in Japan, “re-Islamization” in the Middle East.
Now, a de-Westernization and indigenization of elites in the Western world, at the
same time, Americanization.)
5) Cultural characteristics are less changeable than the political and economic ones.
6) Economic regionalism is increasing. Increasing trade, regional economic blocs. On
the one hand, this will reinforce civilization-consciousness; on the other hand,
economic regionalism may succeed only when it is rooted in a common civilization.
(European Union based on the European culture and the Western Christianity.)
-The clash of civilizations occurs at 2 levels:
A) The micro-level, adjacent groups along the lines between civilizations struggle over
the control of territory.
B) The macro-level, states from different civilizations compete for military and economic
power and competitively promote their particular political and religious values.
The fault lines between civilizations
-Reemergence of cultural division of Europe between Western Christianity/Orthodox
Christianity and Islam.
-Western christianity: catholic or protestants, common European history- feudalism, the
Renaissance, the Reformation, the Enlightenment, the French Revolution and the
-Orthodox or Muslim: