The communist manifesto:
• The history of all former societies is the history of class struggles → oppressor and oppressed
stood in constant opposition to one another, and carried on an constant fight → which ended either
in a revolutionary reconstitution of society or in common ruin of those classes.
• Modern bourgeois society: borne from the ruins of feudal society and has established new
classes → thus new conditions and new forms of struggle. The modern bourgeois is the product of
a long course of developments, a series of revolutions in the modes of production and exchange
(globalization and development due to colonization of America, manufacturing industry, later
replaced by the modern bourgeois industry).
• Distinct feature of bourgeois epoch: there have always been class struggles in history, but our
epoch has simplified class antagonisms → bourgeoisie vs. proletariat.
• Bourgeoisie historically: revolutionary part. → has put an end to feudal patriarchal relations and
replaced it by the nexus created by self interests → cash payment. Personal worth was converted
into exchange value, and the most important freedom has become free trade.
• Means of survival of the bourgeoisie:
o Needs constant revolutionizing of the instruments of production to survive → thus, the
relations of production and consequently the relations of society. Need for constant
expansion of its market → it must be all around the globe.
o Through the exploitation of the world market it has given a cosmopolitan character to
production and consumption in every country. → Due to globalization, the bourgeoisie
draws all nations into civilization. → “It creates a world after its own image”.
o It has created enormous cities, and agglomerated population, centralized means of
production and concentrated property in a few hands.
• Emergence of bourgeoisie: the means of production and exchange were generated in a feudal
society, but at a certain stage of the development of these means of production and exchange, the
feudal relations of property obstructed production rather than advancing it → therefore the feudal
means of production of exchange were replaced by free competition, with a social and political
constitution that adapted to it, influenced by the bourgeois class.
• Backlash of bourgeoisie development: society suddenly finds itself put back into the state of
momentary barbarism →there is too much civilization, to much means of subsistence, too much
industry and too much commerce. → Thus, the productive forces no longer tend to further the
development of bourgeois civilization and conditions of bourgeois property, the productive forces
have become too powerful for these conditions and restrict them → therefore, they bring disorder
to the bourgeois society and endanger the existence of bourgeois property. Ways out:
o Either by enforcing the destruction of a mass of productive forces.
o Or by the conquest of new markets and a more intense exploitation of old ones.
Thus→ through more destruction.
• Labourers: a commodity, like every article of the market → they have to sell themselves as a
piecemeal. The work of proletarians has lost all individual character. They become an appendage
(appendix) to the machine → thus only the most simple abilities are required, and therefore the
cost of production of a workman is restricted to basically the means of subsistence he requires for
his maintenance. → as the repulsiveness of the work increases, the wage decreases (because it
means its cheaper to produce the good, and requires less abilities for the labourer).
• Work in big factories if the industrial capitalist: instead of in the little workshop of the
patriarchal master like in the feudal era. Masses of labourers are crowded into the factory and
organized like soldiers. • The more developed the industry becomes: the less skilled the labourer needs to be. Differences
of age and sex are no longer distinctive.
• Stages of development of the proletariat: at first they struggle with the bourgeoisie that exploits
them, and later they start attacking the instruments of production.
• Growth of proletariat: they shouldn’t only increase in numbers, but also in strength as they
become concentrated in large masses. → The interests and conditions of life of the proletariat are
more equalized → the wages are reduced everywhere to find of the same level. The improvement
of machinery makes the livelihood more precarious. The collisions between individual bourgeois
and workmen become more notorious.
• Result: expansion of the union of workers.
• Status of proletariat:
o It is without property, his relation to wife and children doesn’t have any relation to the
bourgeois family relations, modern industrial labour has stripped him of every trace of
national character → all traces down to bourgeois commercial interests.
o The proletariat cannot become masters of the productive forces of society unless they
abolish the previous modes of appropriation. → They have nothing of their own to secure
and fortify, their mission is to destroy all insurances of individual property.
o Instead of rising with the progress if industry, they sink deeper below the conditions of
existence. → The bourgeoisie is unfit to rule.
• Why is the bourgeoisie unfit to rule? Because it cannot assure an existence to hi