Chapter 12: Sir John A. MacDonald and the Introduction of Canada’s National
Free-er trade spread internationally, many economies adopting liberal trade
Increase in commodities due to transportation advances and increased productive
capacity. Made free trade unpopular.
Protectionism (high tariffs)
Increase immigration to the west
Economic downturn in 1870s
Everyone else was pursuing protectionism, Canada could remain open or retaliate
No regime existed at the time. Everything was done via bilateral agreements.
Industrial producers in Canada were losing the US market, needed to grow
domestically as a result
Land was abundant, but capital and labor were not
Landowners (farmers) expected to support free trade, industrial interests wanted
CPR took longer and cost more than expected. Farmers and vendors in the west
had no choice but to use it, and it cost them a lot.
o Liberals argued for railway competition
Tories did not support immigrants, peo