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POLI 322 (3)

"The Nationalist Movement" (Pratap Bhanu Mehta)

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Political Science
POLI 322
Narendra Subramanian

IntroductionGovernment of India ActAugust 12 1858formally transferred Indian territory rights of Br East India Company to BritishIndia then governed by Br Parliament colonial modernitymodern political institutionsmodern statemodern armycivil servicejudiciaryexperiments with representative govtagricultural property rightsnew trading practices and tariffsinvestment in railwayswestern educationideasrethink the value of their own traditions Indians more uncomfortable with subordinate statusidea that they are backwardinferior Br rule AKA the Raj modern India was formed in the crucible of colonial penetration and Indian resistance Br EIC gained hold in 1757 defeating the Bengali forces made use of symbolic paraphernalialegal instruments of Indian kingdomsonly with Crowns formal acquisition in 1858 did Br power showresistanceHaidar Ali and Tipu Sultan in Mysore South India The Pleasure of All Gods text against seizure of power by the whitemotivated more by regional ambition at the time not panIndian concernsBengal Renaissance Bengali writers began critical assessment of Hindu society and soc reformwant abolition of sati widow burningwant Hinduism reformed along rationalist linesonly post1857 did they see their acts of cultural resistance in terms of political consequences The Revolt of 18571857 Ganges plain and central India revolt ag Br three grievancesrumour that Indian soldiers in Br armys rifle cartridges were being smeared with pigcow fatpeasants and artisans in province of Awadh join soldiers bc unhappy with new taxationrulers and peasants of Maratha tried to seize the opportunity to get rid of the Brimage of the rani of Jhansi became inspiration for future nationalists religious leaders in small towns in the north call for a jihad ag Br Br prevailed in the endaspiration to end Br rule was framed in context of restoring the old monarchies and empires Br learned from thisput an end to mismanagementabolished EICQueen Victoria made empress of IndiaIndia now directly governed by Br govt through reps The Birth of Modern Nationalism1880s nationalist movement associated with the founding of Indian National Congress party 1885new nationalism to introduce some form of selfrule for Indians maybe democraticmodern instrumentsprinting press to mobilize ppl political partiesvoluntary organizations Englishlanguage educationincrease political consciousness many reform and revivalist movements 1880s and 1890s growing consciousness that the economic relations bw India and Br were detrimental to India Br hurting Indian economypreferential tariffs making Br imports cheaper hurt local industrypressure on farmers to grow cash crops make them vulnerable to famineintrusiveness of the colonial state in regulating social institutions ie marriageTilakAurobindo GhoshLala Lajpat Raj first contemplate mass action and insurrectionoppose proposed Bengal partition in 1905 conspiracy to divide Muslims and Hindusquickened pace of agitations in Punjab Madras and Bombaystreet agitationstrikes boycotts public ralliesMintoMorley reforms 1909Br concessions to increase Indians share of power without undermining their controlincreased number of Indians who could be elected to legislative bodies BUT separate electorates meaning each community could vote for only their representativesdivided Indians to weaken their collective powerGandhi and the Trajectory of Indian Nationalismmost decisive transformation Gandhinonviolence as means of protestvision of decentralized village democracy 1919MontaguChelmsford reforms further involved Indians in governing their own affairs kept separate electoratestransferred financial responsibility to Indiansintroduced the principle of dyarchyareas like education health agri become responsibility of provincial legissues like revenue and law enforcement stay with Br authorityRowlatt Actsperpetuate the repressive leg enacted during WWI in which govt can hold Indians without trialwidespread oppositionsevere Br response and Jalliahwalla Bagh massacre in PunjabGandhiprogram of noncooperationstrikes boycotts peace marches collective protests mobilized around issues that could appeal to all classes and religious lineshigh moral standards for nationalist movement transformed the Congress Party into a mass organization that could represent a wide spectrum of ppl better organized at provincial levelcoopt a wide variety of linguistic groups without one dominating became an established organization funds from membership duespermanent stafforganizational electionsnew agitation 1930s 1929 Congress Party declared not satisfied by incremental concessions naming complete freedom as its ultimate goalcivil disobedience campaign launched 1930demand for abolition of salt tax sacrifices a
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