P. Ahluwalia - “Founding Father Presidencies and the Rise of Authoritarianism in
Kenya: A Case Study”
Multi-Party Politics in Kenya and the 1992 Elections:
• 1992: Kenya held its seventh national elections since independence.
• During the campaign period, opposition were denied access to any state
resources, while KANU organized media and poured massive government
resources for their campaign.
• President Daniel Arap Moi and KANU were re-elected.
• Ethnicity remained a major factor in Kenyan politics
o Support for Moi and KANU was an alliance among the small
ethnicities against the country’s two largest ethnicities.
o If the opposition were united, it would have been impossible for Moi
o The opposition leaders secured more than the required 25% of the
votes in five of the eight provinces, mainly due to ethnicity.
The Post-Elections Cabinet:
• When Moi was re-elected, the main opposition parties claimed the results
were rigged. They formed an alliance against the results of the elections.
• Moi’s victory was possible due to the disunity of the opposition.
• The elections resulted in the rejection of fifteen cabinet ministers – which
reflected the electorate’s demand for a more accountable government.
• Cabinet appointments were almost entirely based ethnicity and KANU
• There was little attempt to formulate a cabinet that would reflect the
country’s ethnic and regional diversity.
• Cabinet was reduced from 32 to 25 members and the President re-elected
ministers to the same positions why they had previousl