Textbook Notes (362,882)
Canada (158,081)
POLI 338 (20)
Juan Wang (20)

POLI 338 - Mertha: Fragmented Authoritarianism 2.0

5 Pages
Unlock Document

McGill University
Political Science
POLI 338
Juan Wang

Mertha – Fragmented Authoritarianism 2.0 Argument: policy-making process still captured in fragmented authoritarianism framework, but the process has become increasingly pluralized. Intro “Media coverage suggested a new, unofficial 'model citizen': individuals like Wu Ping who were willing to hold the state accountable in protecting the private property of its citizens.” Pluralization of policy-making: otherwise marginalized officials, NGOs, and activists have managed to “wriggle their way into the policy-making process and even help shape policy outcomes. They have succeeded in part because they have understood and accepted the general rules of the game of policy making under the rubric of 'fragmented authoritarianism.'” This framework, proposed in 1988, remains the most durable framework for understanding Chinese politics. FA: policy made at centre becomes increasingly malleable as it is disseminated down to localities, as it is subjected to political goals of various agencies and regions. “Outcomes are shaped by the incorporation of interests of the implementation agencies into the policy itself.” Thus, FA sees policy-making as incremental changes resulting from bureaucratic bargaining. Mertha argues that previously-marginalized actors have successfully entered this FA framework. “The point of entry is through the agency slack that results from the inability of institutions to adapt sufficiently to rapid socio-economic change, the aggressive lobbying of pressure groups, or the changing expectations of the citizenry.” Policy Entrepreneurs Def: “advocates for proposals or for the prominence of an idea:” they display “willingness to invest their resources—time, energy, reputation, and sometimes money—in the hope of a future return ... in the form of policies of which they approve.” Fragmented political system gives space for these policy entrepreneurs to operate without being snuffed out by state coercion. “The political dynamics captured in the fragmented authoritarianism framework provide policy entrepreneurs with a road map, a playbook by which they can pursue their policy goals. They adopt strategies that traditional actors in China have used for decades.” Three types: 1) Officials opposed to given policy Often due to their organizational mandate. Their portfolio gives degree of political cover. 2) Media Growing progressivism among journalists and media fueled by growing need for media to generate own revenue (leads to need for advertising; leads to need for readership; leads to need for, well, journalism.) 3) NGO Success of NGO can be partially explained by the fact that a large percentage of their staff and officers were trained as journalists or editors, giving them a close relationship with the media. Some have argued that they are better positioned to challenge the state than NGOs were in the Soviet Union and Communist Europe, because those bodies had to work from within the party-sate structure. Issue Frames Policy entrepreneurs (PE) interpret events in new ways to attract support. They use two strategies: 1) Articulation PE link and assemble events to create a persuasive narrative offering a fresh perspective on an issue. They may use symbols packaged to advance certain points of view. 2) Ampliciation PE identify core components of issues to draw out a definitive narrative. They may use reference to historical antecedents, metaphors, analogies, and images. These framing techniques are important for a few reasons: − shows growing ability of critical reporting in Chinese media − show media ability to undermine Beijing's monopoly on spin − reveals role of NGO in spearheading media assault − demonstrates intimate link between media, centre, localities, and activists − expands sphere of political conflict by transforming previously irrelevant actors into potential allies, or adversaries Furthermore, 'state framing' (propaganda) has met with mixed success in the reform era. Much of this is t
More Less

Related notes for POLI 338

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.