Textbook Notes (369,154)
Canada (162,425)
POLI 338 (20)
Juan Wang (20)
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POLI 338 - Goldstein & Beall: Impact of China's Reform Policy on the Nomads of Western Tibet.doc

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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLI 338
Professor
Juan Wang

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Goldstein & Beall – Impact of China's Reform Policy on the Nomads of Western Tibet − subject: Phala xiang − 250 square-mile; 57 households; 265 persons; 10 home-base encampments − raise sheep, goats, yak, and horses and do not farm − sheep and goat make up 87 per cent of livestock; yak the remaining 13 per cent Historical Background − during Qing, Sino-Tibetan relations were not formally regulated − Chinese influence/authority implemented at the top − fall of Qing resulted in Chinese expulsion from Tibet − Sino-Tibetan relations from 1911-1949 characterized by unsuccessful attempts on both sides to reach a mutually satisfactory solution − Tibet sought complete control over own affairs − China sought reassertion of control over Tibet − Britain, India, and US decided unilaterally on policy of de jure Chinese suzerainty over Tibet but de facto independence of Tibet − new PRC government invaded eastern Tibet in 1950; signed agreement acknowledging Chinese sovereignty in 1951 − 1951-59 marked by increasing discord between traditional Tibetan government, Chinese officials in Tibet, and growing rebel movement − unsuccessful Tibetan revolt erupted in March 1959; Dalai Lama fled into exile − Tibet came under direct administration of China Phala Nomads During the Traditional Era − before 1959, Phala were subjects of Tibet's second greatest incarnation, the Panchen Lama − tied to estate; did not have right to take herds and move to estate of another lord − however, each household managed own animals and rights vis-a-vis the lord − so long as (written) obligations were fulfilled, Panchen Lama could not evict them nor refuse them access to pasture Early Period of Direct Chinese Rule: 1959-1980 − adopted policy of bringing Tibet into socialist line gradually − monasteries closed, monks sent home, formal nomad 'class' structure created − all households kept animals and pastures as before − debts before 1959 were rescinded; those contracted i n1959 were recalculated with reduced interest − 1961: mutual aid policy; middle- and lower-class households formed into mutual aid groups; jointly held pastures and cooperated in tasks such as herding − economic decisions remained prerogative of individual households, as well as income − 1969: after word arrived that nomad areas were going to be reconstituted into communes later that year, majority of Phala rose in rebellion, took physical control, killed − rebellion crushed; communes and revolutionary committees instituted − ownership of means of production and marketing/production decisions transferred from the household to the commune − no attempt at reducing pastoralism during this period (1969-1981) − however, smashing the 'four olds' resulted in severe attack on traditional culture − forced to abandon religion and other elements of cultural identity − officials in 1980s were ultimately shocked and disappointed by lack of economic development in Tibet − Hu Yaobang in particular led charge developing a new policy towards Tibet, focusing on economic development and respect for the indigenous culture − post-1980 relaxation of religion and tradition follows trends toward tolerance throughout China, as well as minority policy in other areas − noted for rejecting assimilation and
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