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"The Foundations of Islam" (Roy Anderson, Robert Seilbert, Jon Wagner).pdf

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Political Science
POLI 340
Rex Brynen

Central Belief of Islam complete acceptance of God and submission to His will only one God--Allah recognition of his absolute oneness Prophet Muhammad recorded God's words in the Koran Muslim declaration of faith: shahada The Five Pillars of Islam declaration of faith prayer five times a day towards Mecca giving of alms, either in zakat fixed amount or voluntary contribution fasting during daylight hours of Ramadan month pilgrimage to Mecca The Koran and the Hadith accept certain sources of authority for religious truth Koran is written record of Muhammad's revelations exact word and language of God collection of reports and sayings attributed to the prophet (hadith) analogy social consensus, established custom all of these together form Sharia Law The Ulema equality of every believer before God no clergy to act as intercessors to the divine ulema: religious scholars advise the community and political leaders fill the role of academics and teachers legal and political thinkers political force in their own right remarkable path of adaptiveness balanced with continuity Pre-Islamic Arab Ethics Arab urbanites of Muhammad's time were in a process of transition to settled life society was still organized on the ethical principles that had served nomadic Bedouin forebears Islam at its inception constituted a revitalization and a radical reform of the old ethic nomadic Bedouins had no centralized gov't or pol. auth. no economic foundation to support one, too mobile frequent contact with other Bedouin and non-Bedouin groups necessitated some measure of pol. order created pol. org. bottom up hierarchy of levels to deal with whatever conflict at hand hierarchy loyalties based on closeness of kinship ethic of self-help and collective responsibility disputing sides unable to agree on what constituted an even score revenge ethic designed to keep a modicum of order in a society w/o centralized legal auth. restraint required in revenge ever-present threat of violent reprisal that acted as chief deterrent ag. crime honour and integrity of various groups which the individual identif
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