Textbook Notes (363,143)
Canada (158,220)
POLI 341 (39)

Fawcett Chpt. 1.docx

10 Pages
Unlock Document

McGill University
Political Science
POLI 341
Julie Norman

"The Emergence of the Modern Middle East into the Modern State System" (Eugene L. Rogan) in Fawcett Chpt. 1 Overview • collapse of Ottoman Empire • post-WWI settlement • Turks + Arabs ready for statehood ◦ little experience in diplomacy • legacy of statecraft in Arab world • Arab lands constituted provinces of a common state • no say in post-war partition of lands • new form of colonial state: mandates ◦ nationalist movements emerge for independence • post-independence states divided by factionalism + infighting • Palestine crisis 1947-1949 Introduction: The Arab Entry to International Relations • Arab World entry to int'l relations at Versailles Peace Conference • pre-war ◦ Arab lands of N. Africa colonized by France, Britain, and Italy ◦ Asian Arab lands under Ottoman rule • want sovereignty, but face 2 impediments ◦ no consensus among them on post-war state structure they sought ▪ some want discrete national states ▪ some want broader Arab statehood ◦ non-European states entered an originally European club ▪ criteria of admission laid by founder members ▪ imperial interests in Eastern Mediterranean ▪ soldiers still occupied Egypt, Palestine, Syria, and Iraq • admission to int'l society conditional on recognition of sovereignty • Great Powers decided upon set of regulatory rules of war and peace (int'l law) • new states of Asia, Africa, and Middle East knew nothing of int'l relations Ottoman Diplomacy • Ottoman Empire under reign of Sultan Selim III (1789-1807) • European ambassadors were received by the Porte but no Ottoman permanent missions sent to Euro capitals (unilateral) • euro relations with Ottos through trade companies (i.e. English Levant Company) ◦ euro merchants have extraterritorial rights in Otto domains, set out in the Capitulations • Capitulations ◦ bilateral treaties ◦ drafted when Ottos were dominant Mediterranean power • first reciprocal diplomacy ◦ embassies in London, Vienna, Berlin, and Paris 1790s ◦ DUMB! Fr. Rev. + Nap. Wars • Euro intervene to prevent the fall of Sultan's gov't = assimilation into Euro state system • two Egyptian crises lead Euro to contain ambitions of Egyptian governor Pasha • London Convention 1840 resolving 2nd Egyptian Crisis ◦ Otto entry to continental Euro politics ◦ first Euro convention signed by Otto diplomats ◦ Brit. + Austia + Pr. + Rus. draft secret 'self-denying protocol' ▪ no power would seek terr. or eco. gains in Otto domains to the exclusion of any other Power ▪ lapsed by 1878 ▪ Otto declared bankruptcy to Euro creditors ▪ disastrous war with Russia ▪ forced to accept enormous terr. losses ▪ Br. claims Cyprus as colony ▪ Fr. occupies Tunisia ▪ Treaty of Berlin: Ottos fed 2/5 of terr. ▪ dismemberment of Empire • Ottos join Concert of Europe 1856 when they sign Treaty of Paris ending Crimean War • permanent embassies opened in Euro capitals • Istanbul received ambassadors from Great Powers ◦ diplomacy in Otto empire confined to the imperial capital An Ottoman Legacy of Statehood • Arabs have no experience of statecraft • direct colonial rule in 1919 ◦ French ▪ Morocco protectorate ▪ Tunisia colony ▪ Algeria ◦ British ▪ Egypt protectorate • Tanzimat ◦ Ottoman reforms ◦ gave Arab lands extensive exposure to Otto instruments of state ◦ designed to preclude Euro pretexts to intervene in Otto affairs ◦ issues of minority rights ▪ equality established b/w Muslims and non-Muslims ▪ to prevent Euro from exploiting these issue to intervene ◦ domestic governance and financial regularity ◦ 1858 Land Law + 1864 Provincial Governance Law + promulgation of Mecelle civil code ▪ brought rational bureaucracy, fiscal regularity, consistent rule of law, growing contact b/w Otto subjects and gov't ◦ Arab provinces direct knowledge of and contact with gov't bureaucracy, elected office • associate certain benefits with exercise of statecraft ◦ rule of law ▪ new degree of security (esp. in countryside) ◦ expansion of primary and secondary schools ▪ broadened literacy ▪ growing number of locals joining civil service ◦ clear sense of citizenship ◦ found a political voice for their rights • 1864 Provincial Reform Law ◦ Otto prov. kapitals focus of extensive investment and construction ▪ gov't buildings, communications infrastructure, comm. and residential quarters renovation • all of this constitutes a legacy of 'stateness' that prepared Arab people for some degree of self-rule by 1919 Wartime Plans for the Partition of the Middle East • three distinct negotiations in post-war disposition of Arab lands (led by Britain) ◦ 1. Sharif Hussein Pledge ▪ Br. High Commissioner McMahon + Sharif of Mecca Hussein ▪ terms for Arab revolt ag. Otto rule ▪ Br. support of enormous Arab kingdom ▪ famous letter of 34 October 1915 with British acceptance of the proposed boundaries ▪ Hussein initiates Arab Revolt in July 1916 ◦ 2. Sykes-Picot Agreement ▪ Br. Foreign Office + Fr. Ministry of Foreign Affairs ▪ post-war partition of Otto domains ▪ agreement February 1916 ▪ Russia support 1 month later ▪ Anglo-French agreement to Rus. terr. demands in Eastern Anatolia ▪ Fr. establish admin. in those areas excluded by McMahon in Arab kingdom ▪ two districts of Mersina and Alexandretta and portions of Syria ▪ Br. establish admin in Mesopotamia ▪ inland terr. between both to be divided into Br. + Fr. spheres of influence ▪ Palestine internationalized ◦ 3. Balfour Declaration ▪ Br. gov't + World Zionist Organization ▪ formal support for establishment of Jewish national home in Palestine ▪ letter from Foreign Minister Balfour to Lord Rothschild ▪ Br. support for the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people ▪ contradicted Sharif Hussein Pledge + Sykes-Picot Agreement ▪ complicated post-war settlement at Versailles • Br. sole possession of Arab Middle East in September 1918 Post-War Settlement, 1919-22 • weak bargaining position of Arab delegates to Versailles • duplicity of Great Powers • colonies and terr. of the vanquished empires seen as spoils of war • US Wilson in Fourteen Points espouses self-determination ◦ Turkish portion should be sovereign ◦ other nationalities now under Turkish rule should be assured security of life and opportunity for autonomous development The Arabs in Versailles • press claims for recognition • Greeks want Anatolia • Armenians want statehood • Hashemites want Arab kingdom promised in Sharif Hussein Pledge • Zionist want to uphold Balfour Declaration • Br. block Egypt from sending a delegation ◦ uprising 1919 ◦ Br. change their mind and send someone Egypt and the Wafd • nationalist movement in Egypt • under Br. occupation since 1882 • already had institutions of independent statehood • Pasha ruled Egypt, then his descendants (khedives = rulers of Egypt) ◦ consultation with cabinet of ministers ◦ proto-parl. (Chamber of Delegates) • occupation b/c of bankruptcy in 1876 • Egypt formally separated from Otto Empire in November 1914 ◦ declared Br. protectorate • Khedive is now a Sultan • Revolution of 1919 renders Egypt ungovernable ◦ Br. forced to recall Zaghlul from exile and send him to Versailles ◦ first day: US delegation issues statement recognizing Br. protectorate over Egypt • 1922 Treaty ending protectorate The Hashemite Arab Kingdom • Amir Faisal = King of Syria 1920 • Syria has no recognized boundaries or formal gov't • signed agreement with Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann conceding Palestine to the Zionist movement ◦ in exchange, demands for Arab kingdom accepted by the Powers • threat of Fr. rule hung over new state • Faisal presents Conference with memorandum setting out Arab aspirations 1919 ◦ unite Arabs eventually into 1 nation ◦ Arab ethnic and linguistic unity ◦ aspirations of pre-war Arab nationalist parties in Syria and Meso ◦ Arab services to Allies' war effort ◦ wants immediate and full Greater Syria independence ◦ accept foreign intervention in Palestine + Meso to mediate • second set of claims at Conference by chairman of Central Syrian Committee, Shukri Ghanim ◦ stresses Syria's lack of prep for self-rule ◦ need for foreign assistance ◦ asks to place Syria under the tutelage of Fr. ◦ reconcile Muslims and Christians ◦ BUT SHOCKER!! revealed to be a Fr. citizen who had been away from Syria for 35 years • US proposes dispatch of commission of enquiry to establish the wishes of Syrian people The King-Crane Commission • Henry Churchill King + Charles R. Crane as commissioners • set out for Syria in May 1919 • meet local reps, report back on aspirations in Syria, Iraq, and Palestine • presence in Syria catalyzed a mobilization of the Syrian population ◦ Arab gov't distributed sermons to be read in prayers ◦ pol. and cult. associations enlisted to prepare petitions ◦ headmen of villages and towns mobilized to encourage enthusiastic response • August 1919 drafted report delivered to US delegation in Paris • AND THEN NOTHING! ◦ no evidence it was ever consulted by Br. or Fr. ◦ only made public in 1922, after it was all over • serves as a yardstick to measure the gulf that separated Arab claims of self determination made to the commissioners from the mandate system they received • What the report said ◦ explicit Syrian preference for full independence ◦ recommends fixed-term mandate under US or Br. auth., leading
More Less

Related notes for POLI 341

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.