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Chapter 15

Chapter 15 - Patterns of Policy

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Political Science
POLI 341
Imad Mansour

FPMES Chapter 15Conclusion Patterns of Policy y The Middle East state system is shaped by two forces o 1 Trans state forces Imperialism Nationalism War Oil Islam and Globalization o 2 State behavior Imperialism and Nationalismy Outside forces have played a constitutive role in the development of the regional systemo European powers stimulated modernization brought down the Ottoman Empire and carved new state territories which were put under their controly In doing so these external powers built instability into the regional system due to a poor fit between state and identityy Imperialism generated reaction in various forms of nationalism o Arab Iranian Turkish and Zionist y Thus the imperialist imposition of the regional state system was a major force shaping regional states and their foreign policies o The more the state system stifled indigenous desires goals and identity the more the radical middleclass and lower class were mobilizedo This translated into revolutions thus giving power to forces with revisionist ambitionsy Ideological heterogeneity The Arab Cold Waro Different experiences with western imperialism resulted in different ideological allegianceso Nationalist forces that sought to challenge the Western regional order opposed the conservative monarchies that relied on western patronageWar and State Formationy The regional system has been characterized by the wars revolving around o ArabNonArab fault lines o The ArabIsraeli conflict o The Gulf Conflicts y The ArabIsraeli war drove the rapid militarization of both the Israeli and Arab states but it also dictated intraArab relations and dominated the domestic agenda in the Arab countries of the Levanty The ArabIsraeli conflict also invited the superpowers into the region on opposing sides and their arms transfers escalated the level of militarization
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