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POLI 360 (34)

"Economic Sanctions and the Problem of Evil" (Adeno Addis)

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Political Science
POLI 360
Julie Norman

use of economic sanctions ES increasingly challenged more than just for behaviour modification of target regimealso the process through which sanctioning community defines its identity by dissociating itself from the target regime ES now a regular feature of intl relations and diplomacypre1990s only used twice by United Nations Security Council UNSCsince 1990 Afghanistan Haiti Iraq Iran Libya Myanmar Yugoslavia sanctions decadeunilateral sanctionsimposed by one country against another in pursuit of a particular foreign policy objectiveUS made it a regular feature of its foreign policy multilateral sanctionsimposed by international or regional organization or loosely linked group of countriesie UNSC EU NATOwith UNSC all members are required to comply and enforce the EScritics1 sanctions often fail to bring about the desired bhv or policy change empirical not normative2 lead to desired bhv modification but at a cost that is too greatdeprive citizens of basic necessities of lifemassive disruption and destruction of lifecost in life liberty and propertymoral and material costinfrastructural damage toocontrary to Kant treat humanity never simply as a means but at the same time as an end3 look at the selective way in which ES are applied not just looking at reprehensibility but at vulnerability weakness or size of stateculpabilityvulnerabilityinstrumentalist justificationonly objective that animates or should animate ES is the desire or need to make target regime change bhv or policysees sanctions as instruments identitarian justification not always explicitsanctioning community uses ES to define its identity through the act of dissociating itself from target regimedefines the virtuous self like thiscritics have thus far ignored this making for misleading and incomplete research and analysis process through which sanctions are currently imposed makes failure of both justifications commonsovereign authority can legally decide with whom to have or not have commercial relations unilateral sanctions are legalbut may be subject to previously signed bilateral or multilateral agreements that they chose to signmultilateral institutions are differentauthority of them is not inherent but specifically given by documents that established them ie UN Charter for UNSCunless specific clear authority given to it a multilateral institution is assumed not to have the power to impose ES UNSC gets it from Article 41 decide what measures are appropriate to give effect to its determination that there is breach or threat to peacemaintain and restore intl peacesecurity unilateral sanctions mean state can use the sanction for many purposesprotect narrow selfinterest defend intl norms etcmultilateral sanctions mean institution or group must use the specific purpose for which the constituting document provides bhv mod has both preventative and corrective dimensionsie UNSC could impose ES to prevent regime from acting a certain way that will breach peace maintaining status quo could also use it as corrective action to restore the status quo antesome legal sanctions are adopted also for retributive purposes though retribution as deterrentaspect of the attempt to modify bhv preventative within its authorityie UNSC imposing sanction after status quo is reestablished and even wo threat because thinks an unpunished regime might likely repeat the offending actionretribution as punitivemeans of restoring moral equilibriumto achieve some sort of justice if judged solely based on whether change is affectedUNSC in Afghanistan failed to get the ruling party the Taliban to stop supporting terrorists in 1990s and 2000 and they never turned over Bin Ladeninstrumental justification is empirically unsound and conceptually flawedTaliban regime and Saddam Hussein Iraq regime were only toppled by ongoing USled military operationsCastro regime still in control of Cuba even after years of harsh ESES are pursued under assumption that citizenry of target state will either remove odd ending regime or pressure them to change policiesbut most common regimes assume power and maintain it with force so are not accountable to citizens regimes keep the small section of populace that supports them comfortable while ordinary citizens shoulder the harsh ES effects ironic because sanctions meant to champion human rights trample on those same peoplecitizens sometimes rally behind regime because of sanctionsregimes convey that the sanctioners dont care about their lives only their FP objectivesregimes vulnerability becomes the nations vulnerability define sanction as another form of one civilization demeaning and attacking their rel tradition Christianity imposing on Islam for examplevictim is not the regime or state but a grand traditionnorms signal boundaries use legal norm to show what are the negations of that identity versus what are central to it identitarian view of legality until recently has been relegated to the margins of intellectual and scholarly debate raised by minority groups to resist the imperial middleconstitutive dimension of ESState of Massachusetts barred state entities from purchasing GS from companies doing business with Burma Myanmar bc poor human rights recordhoped to capture other states attention and federal govt action dissociated Mass from evil regimes practicesway of expressing moral view defined Burma govt as outlaw and defined itself in the processidentities are defined relationally intl legal norms often invoked for noninstrumental purposes constitute and affirm the evolving identity of the imagined community the international communityin the way norms are developed the circumstances in which they are invoked and against whom they are invoked imagined communityall communities larger than primordial villages of facetoface contact are imaginedwill never know most of their fellow yet in the mind of each lives the image of their communion distinguished by the style in which they are imagined processes and institutions through which ppl imagine it shared histories memories anxieties and hopesin communion with those who share or are linked to the same institutionshave similar outlooks as to who and what could be the negation of them modern intl community was defined by WWII led to UN and adoption of Charter respect for human rightsdisfavour of war as a means of interstate relations we the people in the
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