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Chapter 5

POLI 227 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: New Social Movements, Gender Inequality Index, Glass Ceiling

Political Science
Course Code
POLI 227
Rex Brynen

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Women and Development: Handelman Chapter 5 Notes
- Gender inequality exist in most societies but are worse in LDCs
- Women play a distinct role in development not studied until recently
- New Social Movements (NSMs): political grassroots organizations in Latin America, which
women played huge role since the 1970s
- Gender gap influences many aspects of life
- As oe’s eduatio rises, irth rates fall
- Gender Parity Index (GPI): compares female literacy rate to male literacy rate as a decimal
o Gender gap in literacy has narrowed in the last 2 decades (East & Central Asia almost
- Gender Inequality Index (GII): compares political/economic empowerment, participation in
work force, and health
o Ranges from 0.000 to 1.000
- Gender Related Development Index (GDI): compares female to male life expectancy, education,
and income
Women in Grassroots Organizations
- Woe took iterest i grassroots leadership / the’re eluded fro aistrea politial
parties and these groups are accessible and relevant to them
- Emergence of GR groups to rep. poor/middle-class women
- Urban and rural groups different
o Both led by politically experienced middle-class women
o Rural GR groups more likely to stage demonstrations/protests; more aggressive
Partly b/c they face a more hostile confrontation (must fight harder to be
o Urban groups more moderate
- I Lati Aeria’s ilitar ditatorship oe’s GR helped restore deora i 80s
o 3 types: feminist groups, neighborhood organizations (from urban slums), Mothers of
the Plaza de Mayo (human rights)
o Plaza de Mayo group was the most integrated (bringing women from all diff.
Beig a oa led group as adatage i this ase, / authoritaria go’t
saw women as being less political and let them continue
Women as National Political Leaders
- Women underrepresented in LDCs among high ranking leadership; however a number of
atios hae had oe as heads of go’t Idia, “ri Laka, “u-Saharan African countries,
- 4 nations in South Asia have been led by women prime ministers; Latin America also has
politically powerful women
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