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Chapter 6

POLI 227 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Clientelism, Agrarian Reform, Fatalism


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLI 227
Professor
Rex Brynen
Chapter
6

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Politics of Rural and Urban Poor Notes (Chapter 6, Handelman)
- Usually in developing countries, the poor make up largest segment of pop.
- Also have the least political influence
o b/c of lack of education, professional skills, wealth, organization
- until 1960s 2/3rd of world pop. was rural
- power concentrated in urban areas therefore, policies have urban bias
o Modernization theory: modern views will spread from urban to rural areas
o Dependency theory: urban vs. rural models international relationship between
developed/LDCs
Rural Class Structures
- Land concentration: degree to which farmland is equally distributed in the countryside
o Increasingly concentrated b/c of spread of plantations
- Large landowners (the oligarchy)
o In LCDs, powers have declined since 1950s
o Agrarian reform: non-revolutionary, peaceful reform supporting land
redistribution
- Midsized landowners/affluent peasants
o Still work on land themselves
o Can afford to hire additional peasant labour
o Potent political force (family networks)
- Rural poor
o Peasants: family farmers who work small plots; traditional lifestyle; lack
transportation to market to sell their crops
Deped o others’ series ppl ho eploit the
o Smallholders vs. landless
Landless: tenant famers, wage labourers (poorest out of all)
Peasant Politics
- Peasants are often source of conservatism; distrust of outside values
- Modernization often impacts their lives negatively
- Peasants have also historically been major part of resistance movements
- Neither inherently conservative nor intrinsically radical
- Transition from feudal-like system to capitalist system in rural areas strips peasants of
their previous protection, even in a subordinate position modernization/capitalism
often leads to upheaval
- No way to classify which way peasants vote (depends on the nature of peasantry,
quality of political system)
o Range from far left to far right
o Usually make decisions based on which system can meet immediate economic
and material needs
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Agrarian Reform
- 2 components: land reform and technical assistace fro gov’t
o Land reform: redistribution of agricultural land from large landowners to public
property
Collective farms: also called state farms; usually not efficient
o Go’t assistae: credit, access to markets, social services (health care)
Patterns of Land Concentration:
- Landless peasants in LCDs = large % of rural pop.
- Latin America: most concentrated land ownership
- M“T: ladless orkers’ oeet; fouded i s i Lati Aeria
- Despite this, land concentration has generally risen
- Cases for Agrarian Reform:
o Political stability (Huntington)
o Social justice
o Agricultural productivity
o Economic growth
o Environmental protection Amazon rainforest burning
o Prevents peasant unrest
- Decline of Agrarian Reform:
o Land redistribution is determined by balance of political power b/w peasants and
landlords
o Successful agrarian reform in East Asia (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan)
implemented by the US
Landlords were in a weak position
o Often landed elites powerful enough to stomp out reform
- Revolutions:
o Peasants play large role; destro ladlord’s poer
o Collectivization:
E.g. Chia’s Great Leap Forard fored olletiizatio food
productivity dropped; ppl died from starvation)
- Proletarianization: process of capitalist modernization rural poverty rural
migration to urban slums
- Adaig peasat agriulture is ruial to LDC’s deelopet ad eradiatig huger
Urbanization
- 2008: worldwide urban pop. exceeded rural pop. for first time
-   5% of LDC’s pop. ill e i ities
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