Chapter 1: Understanding Underdevelopment

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16 Apr 2012
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Chapter(1:(Understanding(Underdevelopment(
Approximately-150-countries-make-up-the-developing-world-
Third-World-countries-are-the-nations-of-Arica,-Asia,-The-Middle-East,-Latin-America-
and-the-Caribbean.-
Third-World-Commonalities:-The-Nature-of-Underdevelopment-
Economic-Underdevelopment-
Most-salient-characteristic-of-most-developing-countries-is-poverty-
Low-GDP/capita,-unequal-income-distribution,-poor-infrastructure,-limited-
use-of-modern-technology,-low-consumption-of-energy-
Widespread-scarcity,-substantial-unemployment,-substandard-housing,-poor-
health-conditions,-inadequate-nutrition-
While-per-capita-income-is-a-useful-indicator-of-a-nation’s-living-standard,-it-
does-not-give-us-a-complete-picture-because-it-fails-to-take-into-account-how-
equitably-that-income-is-distributed-
Big-disparities-between-living-standards-in-the-3rd-world-although-rapid-
economic-growth-benefits-city-dwellers,-it-only-slightly-improves-rural-
dwellers-lives-which-usually-accounts-for-about-2/3-of-each-nation’s-
populations-
Social-Underdevelopment-
Countries-with-higher-literacy-rates-are-more-likely-to-attain-and-maintain-
democratic-government-
In-order-to-modernize-and-develop,-education-must-be-improved-
HDI-=-a-composite-measure-of-school-enrollment,-adult-literacy,-life-
expectancy-and-GDP-
Life-expectancy-and-literacy-are-valuable-indicators-of-development-
Economic-growth-and-government-policies-affect-social-development--
Counties-who-rely-heavily-on-oil-exports-tend-to-be-HDI-underachievers-
Almost-1.4-billion-live-in-absolute-poverty-
Political-Underdevelopment-
Political-development-involves-the-creation-of-specialized-and-differentiated-
governmental-institutions--
Some-Relationships-Between-the-Components-of-Development-
Economic-and-social-development-correlate-with-political-development-
Economic-development-does-not-always-transcend-into-political-development-
As-a-country-modernizes,-the-people-tend-to-make-greater-demands-on-the-
government-which-the-government-may-or-may-not-be-able-to-keep-up-with-
The-Causes-of-Underdevelopment-
Modernization-Theory-and-the-Importance-of-Cultural-Values-
Relatively-optimistic-about-prospects-for-development--
Developing-nations-had-to-acquire-modern-cultural-values-and-create-modern-
political-and-economic-institutions-
Transforming-traditional-cultures-was-“the-most-crucial-step-in-the-
modernization-process”-
Modern-ideas:-possibility/desirability-of-change,-to-value-science-and-
technology,-think-about-global-issues,-to-believe-in-political-change-
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