Chapter 8: Revolutionary Change

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18 Apr 2012
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Chapter(8:(Revolutionary(Change(
Modern'revolutionary'movements'have'been'largely'a'third'world'phenomenon,'
fought'primarily'by'the'peasantry.'
Defining'Revolution'
Simply'a'form'of'governmental'change'through'violence'(broad)'
Involve'a'fundamental'transfer'of'political'and'economic'powers,'rather'than'a'mere'
change'in'political'leaders.'
Revolutionary'governments'are'frequently'more'broadly'participatory'and'
egalitarian'than'the'regimes'they'have'toppled.'
Underlying'Causes'of'Revolution'
Inexorable'Historical'Forces'
Mao'was'the'most'influential'practitioner'of'revolutionary'warfare'in'the'20th'
century'
Many'adhere'to'Marx’s'theory''
Regime'Decay'
True'revolutions'succeed'only'when'international'pressures'such'as'war,'
economic'competition'or'an'arms'race'undermine'the'state'
Most'significant'factor'contributing'to'a'successful'revolutionary'struggle'is'
the'internal'rot'of'the'decaying'old'order'
Challenges'from'Below'
To'succeed'
1. The'revolutionaries'must'establish'themselves'as'an'“alternative'
sovereignty”'
2. A'sizable'portion'of'the'population'must'support'that'revolutionary'
alternative'
3. The'established'government'must'be'incapable'of'suppressing'the'
revolutionary'opposition'
Most'likely'to'occur'in'developing'nations'
Revolutionary'patterns'
1. Western'model:'the'political'institutions'of'the'old'regime'collapse'
followed'by'the'mobilization'of'new'groups'into'politics'and'then'by'
creation'of'new'political'institutions'(French'Revolution/'Mexican'
Revolution/'Russian'Revolution)'
2. Eastern'model:'begins'with'the'mobilization'of'new'groups'into'politics'
and'the'creation'of'new'political'institutions'and'ends'with'the'violent'
overthrow'of'the'political'institutions'of'the'old'order'(China'and'
Vietnam)'
J'Curve:'as'a'country’s'economy'grows'for'a'period'of'time,'he'suggests'
people’s'expectations'continue'to'rise'correspondingly.'However,'these'
expectations'continue'to'rise'when'a'country'experiences'a'downturn.'
o Gap'between'wheat'people'want'and'what'they'get.''
Ted'Gurr:'relative'deprivation'
Causes'of'Revolution:'A'Summary'
Revolutions'are'never'inevitable'
Many'factors'lead'into'them'
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